A patriot, a skilled administrator, a clever politician, Chaudhary Charan Singh, who spoke for the farmers of India, was a humanitarian with an impeccable personality. Charan Singh, a longtime member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, who took over as the Chief Minister of the state and took over as the Prime Minister of India, was one of the founders of the Bhartiya Kranti Dal and the Lok Dal. Charan Singh, who has been constantly striving for the betterment of farmers and weaker sections, as Prime Minister, tried to take various steps for the welfare of the common man. Historians and people alike frequently refer to him as the ‘Champion of the India’s Peasants.’
Biography of Chaudhary Charan Singh
|Name||Chaudhary Charan Singh|
|Date of Birth||23 December,1902|
|Place of Birth||Noorpur, Meerut District, Uttar Pradesh|
|Father’s Name||Meer Singh|
|Mother’s Name||Netra Kaur|
Early Life of Chaudhary Charan Singh
Chaudhary Charan Singh, who served as the fifth Prime Minister of India, was born in Jat family on December 23,1902 in Noorpur village under Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. Chaudhary Charan Singh’s father’s name is Meer Singh and mother’s name is Netra Kaur. Charan Singh was one of the five children of Mir Singh and Netra Kaur. Charan Singh’s father was a farmer by profession.
Charan Singh was a good student, and subsequently graduated in science stream from Agra College in 1923 and a master’s degree in history in 1925 and a LLB degree in 1926. Charan Singh started practicing law in Ghaziabad from 1928 after completing his law degree. But after joining the Indian National Congress in 1929, he focused entirely on the political aspect.
Also Read : Biography of Morarji Desai
Political Career of Charan Singh
Chaudhary Charan Singh was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s biography. For which he was directly involved in the Indian political arena in parallel with his active participation in the freedom movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Importantly, Chaudhary Charan Singh, who jumped into India’s freedom movement following Mahatma Gandhi, in non-violent struggle for independence from the British Government, was imprisoned several times. It may be recalled that he was imprisoned for 12 years by the British for contravention of the Salt laws in 1930. The British subsequently sentenced Charan Singh to one year in prison again in November 1940 for individual Satyagraha movement. Again, in August 1942, Charan Singh was arrested by the British under DIR and released in November 1943.
Chaudhary Charan Singh was elected to the Uttar Pradesh assembly from Chhaprauli (Baghpat) assembly constituency when he was just 34 years old. In 1938 he introduced an Agricultural Produce Market Bill in the Assembly which was published in the issues of The Hindustan Times of Delhi dated 31 March 1938. The Bill was intended to safeguard the interests of the farmers against the rapacity of traders. The Bill was adopted by most of the states in India, Punjab being the first states to do so in 1940. It may be recalled that Charan Singh played an active role in the assembly after being elected to the assembly and questioned various issues. These questions were about the rights of farmers. Importantly, Charan Singh, who became the favourite of the then Uttar Pradesh chief minister Govind Ballabh Pant with his work skills, also served as parliamentary secretary to the Congress government from 1946 to 1950 and served as Revenue Minister. He first served as Cabinet Minister in Uttar Pradesh in 1951 and served as minister of Justice and Information. He then served as minister of Revenue and Agriculture in 1952. Charan Singh served as Agriculture and Forest minister in Sucheta Kriplani’s ministry from 1962-63.
Charan Singh, who emerged as a strong leader of the Congress party in Uttar Pradesh, openly opposed Jawaharlal Nehru’s Soviet-style economic reforms. Charan Singh was of the opinion that cooperative firms would not succeed in India. Farmer’s son Charan Singh expressed his views with personal experience that right to ownership is important for farmers. He sought amendments in the area of ownership of farmers. Which is why openly criticizing Nehru’s economic policies also affected Charan Singh’s political career.
In view of these reasons, in 1967, Charan Singh left the Indian National Congress party and formed a new political party called the Indian Kranti Dal of his own. Importantly, Charan Singh took over as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1967 with the direct support of Raj Narayan and Ram Manohar Lohia. He later took over as chief minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1970 with the support of the Congress party after the Congress party was divided into two parts in 1970. But in 1975, the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency and sentenced all her political opponents Charan Singh, along with other opposition leaders, to prison. In the 1977 general elections, the Indian populace voted her out, and the opposition party, of which Chaudhary Charan Singh was a senior leader came into power. Charan Singh merged the political party he formed with Morarji Desai’s Janata Party after he was released from jail on the eve of Lok Sabha elections. Charan Singh served as Home Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister in the Janata government led by Morarji Desai in the Lok Sabha elections.
Importantly, during Morarji Desai’s prime ministership, differences arose between Charan Singh and Morarji Desai and Charan Singh was sworn in as the Deputy Prime Minister on July 28,1979 with the support of Indira Gandhi’s Congress (I) Party. But just before he was to confirm his majority in the Lok Sabha, Indira Gandhi withdrew her support for Charan Singh’s government. He resigned on 20 August 1979, after just 23 days in office, becoming the only Prime Minister of India who did not face Parliament.
Chaudhary Charan Singh was also a writer in parallel with being a politician. Some of the notable books he has written are– Agrarian Revolution in Uttar Pradesh published in 1957, Joint Farming X-rayed published in 1959, India’s Economic Policy published in 1978 – The Gandhian Blueprint, Economic Nightmare of India published in 1981: Its Cause and Cure, Abolition of Zamindari published in 1947, published in 1964, India s Poverty and It’s Solution, published in 1986 Land Reforms in UP and the Kulaks, Co-operative Farming X, Prevention of Division of Holdings Below a Certain Minimum etc.
Importantly, December 23 is celebrated as Kisan Diwas or National Farmers’ Day on the occasion of the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister and Farmer leader Chaudhary Charan Singh. The idea to celebrate Farmers’ Day is to express gratitude to the farmers who have formed the backbone of the country’s economy. It may be recalled that Chaudhary Charan Singh, the son of a farmer who has been dubbed the “Champion of Farmers”, has taken several steps to reform the agriculture system along with introducing several policies to strengthen the farmers.
Chaudhary Charan Singh died on May 29, 1987 at the age of 84, at New Delhi, India. It may be recalled that after the death of Chaudhary Charan Singh, The Amavasya Airport in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh was renamed as Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport and The University of Meerut in Uttar Pradesh, India was also named as Chaudhary Charan Singh University in his honour. Intellectual approach, hard work and humble behaviour and as an uncompromising freedom fighter, skilled politician, working MP, Chaudhary Charan Singh, who has dedicated his entire life to the nation, is the ideal of the present day.
1. Why is Kisan Diwas celebrated?
Answer: December 23 is celebrated as Kisan Diwas or National Farmers’ Day to mark the birth anniversary of Chaudhary Charan Singh, the son of a farmer who has been dubbed the “champion of farmers”.
2. Who did not face Parliament during the prime ministership?
Answer: Chaudhary Charan Singh did not face Parliament during his prime ministership.
3. Who was one of the founders of the Indian Kranti Dal and Lok Dal?
Answer: Chaudhary Charan Singh is one of the founders of the Indian Kranti Dal and Lok dal.
4. Where and when was Chaudhary Charan Singh born?
Answer: Chaudhary Charan Singh was born on December 23, 1902 in Noorpur village under Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh.
5. What is the name of Chaudhary Charan Singh’s parents?
Answer: Chaudhary Charan Singh’s father’s name is Meer Singh and mother’s name is Netra Kaur.
6. Name some of the boos written by Chaudhary Charan Singh.
Answer: Some of the boos written by Charan Singh are – Agrarian Revolution in Uttar Pradesh published in 1957, Joint Farming X-rayed published in 1959, India’s Economic Policy published in 1978 – The Gandhian Blueprint, Economic Nightmare of India published in 1981: Its Cause and Cure etc.
7. When did Chaudhary Charan Singh died?
Answer: Charan Singh died on May 29, 1987 at the age of 84, at New Delhi, India.
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