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NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 9 Motivation
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Intext Questions & Answers
INTEXT QUESTIONS 9.1
1. Fill in the blanks with correct alternative:
(a) The process of initiating _____________ in the organism is called motivation.
(b) All intentional behaviours involve _____________
(c) Motivation is_____________ observable.
(d) Motives help in predicting _____________.
2. Define motivation.
Ans. Motivation is the process of activating, maintaining and directing behaviour towards a particular goal.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 9.2
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
(a) Need is a condition of _____________ or _____________
Ans. lack deficit.
(b) Goals are _____________ representations of _____________ states.
(c) Incentives are_____________ that satisfy needs.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 9.3
1. Who has given the theory of hierarchy of needs? List the needs in hierarchy.
Ans. Maslow. The hierarchy is:
1. Physiological needs.
2. Safety needs.
3. Love and belongingness needs.
4. Esteem needs.
5. Self actualization.
6. Self transcendence.
2. What is intrinsic motivation? Give an example.
Ans. Intrinsic motivation is when motivation arises from satisfaction due to own behaviour.
3. What is extrinsic motivation? Give an example.
Ans. Extrinsic motivation is when motivation arises because of external rewards.
1. Briefly explain the nature of motivation.
Ans. Motivation is one of the most frequently used words in psychology. It refers to the factors which move or activate the organism. We infer the presence of motivation when we see that people work toward certain goals. For example, we might observe that a student works hard at almost every task that comes to him/her; from this we infer that the person has motive to achieve.
All human behaviour appears to arise in response to some form of internal (physiological) or external (environmental) stimulation. The behaviours, however, are not random. They often involve some purpose or goal. It is often held that behaviours take place as a result of the arousal of certain motives. Thus motivation can be defined as the process of activating, maintaining and directing behaviour towards a particular goal. The process is usually terminated once the desired goal is attained by the person.
The process of initiating action is technically called ‘motivation’. Directing behaviour towards a certain goal is the essence of motivation. Motivation is not always directly observable. It is inferred and used to explain behaviour. When we ask “What motivates a person to do a particular task?” We usually mean why does she behave as she does. In other words, motivation, as popularly used, refers to the cause or why of behaviour.
Interestingly, we are not aware of all our motives. Behaviour can be governed by unconscious motives too. If our understanding of motives is correct, we have a powerful tool for explaining behaviour. We explain our everyday behaviour in terms of various motives.
Motives also help us make predictions about behaviour. We may tell what a person will do in future. Motives may not tell exactly what will happen but they give us an idea about the range of activities a person will do. Thus a person with a need to achieve in academics will work hard in school, an individual with a strong need to excel in sports will put in a lot of hard work in that field; similarly in business and in many other situations.
2. Explain the basic concepts of motivation.
Ans. There are certain terms which you will commonly come across when you learn this lesson on motivation such as needs, goals, incentives etc. Let us understand some of these concepts.
(a) Needs and Motives:
A need is a condition of lack or deficit of something required by the organism.In order to maintain homeostasis or balance the organism finds it necessary to satisfy the needs. The needs are of different types. The need for food or water is a physiological need, which arises out of lack or deficit of food or water in the organism. The needs for excretion and urination are also physiological needs. They are due to the organism’s necessity to eliminate waste matter from the body. The need for contact with other persons is a social need. The other social needs include the need for prestige, status, affection, self-esteem, and so on. A person becomes more aware of his needs when they are not fulfilled. In other words, when you are hungry, you need food, and, when you are thirsty you need water. In these cases you are.in a state of deprivation and your bodily system suffers from some kind of imbalance.
The needs may be broadly categorised as, primary or physiological needs and secondary or social needs. Needs for food, water, sex, sleep and rest, and elimination are primary needs. Needs for achievement, affiliation, power are examples of social needs.
The term ‘motive’ refers to goal directed behaviour and energising conditions within the organism that drive behaviour. It is generally used to refer to certain conditions which, besides arousing, predispose a person to respond, or behave in a way appropriate to that motive. Motives direct the activity of the individual towards person’s goals.
Thinking about the goal motivates a person to organize his or her action. If hunger is a need, eating food is a goal. Thus the goal is related to the need state. However, in certain cases, behavior is also guided by intrinsic goals. It means behavior does not always need an external goal. It may be satisfying and enjoyable in itself. Some people may like to sing, dance or play just for the sake of singing, dancing or playing. They like such activities. Thus goals can be intrinsic or extrinsic.
Incentives refers to the goal objects which satisfy the needs. Incentives vary in quality and quantity which make them less or more satisfying and attractive. Thus one can put in a greater amount of effort to attain a more attractive incentive. As a matter of fact many incentives assume considerable significance in the lives of people and they do everything possible to attain those incentives.
Instinct is an old concept in the field of motivation. It is defined as an innate biological force that predisposes the organism to act in a certain way. At one time all behaviours were supposed to be results of certain instincts. Some of the instincts identified by early psychologists are fight, repulsion, curiosity, self abasement, acquisition etc. It was thought that instincts were inherited and compelling sources of conduct, but can be modified by learning and experience. This term is no more used in relation to human behaviour. Animal behaviour is sometimes explained using this term. In current usage ‘instinct’ is reserved for innate response tendencies found among animals.
3. What do you understand by primary needs? How are these different from socio-psychogenic needs?
Ans. People hold beliefs about their competence to undertake some task and such beliefs influence the level of their performance. The self efficacy beliefs are the subjective standards held by the people that inform judgements about choosing specific goals. Introduced by Bandura, the concept of self efficacy has been used to motivate people in a variety of settings. By learning appropriate or realistic self efficacy beliefs one can plan behaviours and perform at a higher level. Self efficacy beliefs are found to play a significant role in adjustment and physical health. It is what people believe they can do with their skills under certain conditions. Self efficacy beliefs develop over time.
They reflect development of understanding that actions produce results and one can produce action that causes results. It may be noted that efficacy beliefs also operate at collective levels. Thus, collective efficacy involves a group’s shared belief in its joint capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce the given level of attainment.
4. What is self efficacy? Show its relationship with behaviour.
Ans. Values work as important motivators. They are considered as desirable and cherisliable goals that serve as guiding principles in people’s lives. Values help to make choices. Values prioritize needs. It is only because of values that people take purposeful long range actions. Pleasure and pain connected with specific behaviours have momentary effects.
In the analysis of values, moral values are given special significance. These values guide choices and actions. Moral values differentiate between good and bad. In a recent study based on data from several countries, some values have been noted which are given below:
Power: This includes social status and prestige, control and dominance over people and resources
Achievement: This includes personal success by demonstrating competence according to social standards.
Self-direction: This includes independent thought and action, choosing, creating, and exploring.
Universalism: This includes understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people.
Benovelence: This includes preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact.
Tradition: This includes respect, commitment and acceptance of the customers and ideas that are given importance in the traditional cultures or religions.
Conformity: This includes restraint of action, inclination, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.
Security: This includes safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships and of self.
In the Indian context the framework of Dharma provides a set of values which are considered central to the sustenance of life. They include truth (Satya), non stealing (asteya), keeping tolerance (driti), intellect (dhi), knowledge (vidya), non-anger (akrodh), forgiveness (kshama), purity (saucha), control of sense organs (indriya nigraha) and self control (dam). These values provide basis for maintaining and promoting life at the individual and the social levels. It maintains a the view that holds entire universe into account.
5. Define values and describe some important values.
Ans. You must be aware that it is not always easy to satisfy the needs. You must have a variety of needs at a time. We all face certain difficulties in our attempts to satisfy the needs. We sometimes meet with failures. Also many obstacles prevent us from reaching the goals. When our needs are not satisfied, we get frustrated.
Frustration is the feeling within an individual of being blocked in the attempts to satisfy needs which one considers significant. Frustration refers to the blocking of behaviour directed towards a goal. An individual displays some sort of disturbed behaviour when he or she is prevented form fulfilling the desired goals. If motives are frustrated or blocked, the person may feel anxious, depressed or angry. For example, if you want to go to a movie or want to play and your parents refuse permission, you may show some kind of disturbed behaviour such as anger and shouting. Frustration often leads to aggression directed towards to source of frustration.
Generally there are three main sources of frustration. These are as follows:
(i) Environmental Forces:
The environmental factors can frustrate the satisfaction of motives. The obstacle may be physical such as lack of money or a road block. They may be social. For instance, yours parents, teachers or classmates may prevent you from doing something what you want to do.
(ii) Personal Factors or Limitations:
They make goals unattainable and produce frustration. The personal inadequacy may be either physical or psychological. The personal characteristics of individuals like personality or intelligence affect performance. The limitations of ability frustrate individuals because they do not let him or her achieve very high goals. At times we have conflicting goals which create frustration.
A conflict is a situation in which an individual is required to act in two or more incompatible ways to achieve two or more exclusive goals. It occurs when an individual is unable to choose between two or more goals.
We all confront some degree of conflict in every stage of our life. We sometimes face a situation where we are supposed to choose between two or more alternatives. For example, we may have to decide whether to buy a book or go to a movie. On the one hand, you may like to play and get company of your friend, and on the other, if you study for the examination you may be successful in the exams. The motive to play and get the company of the friend is thus in conflict with the motive to be successful in examination.
Types of Conflicts:
There are three kinds of conflict which are called “approach approach conflict”, “avoidance-avoidance conflict” and “approach – avoidance conflict”.
An approach-approach conflict is a situation when one has to choose between two positive and equally attractive goals. It is caused when we have two pleasurable goals within our reach. We have to choose one out of these two. The example of this kind of conflict may be found in a situation when you are offered admission to two equally attractive courses of study for higher education and you have to decide between them.
The second type of conflict is avoidance-avoidance conflict. It occurs when we have to decide between two equally undesirable and negative goals. Forex ample, such a conflict may arise when you have to choose between goals that are equally disliked by you. In approach-avoidance conflict, we are both attracted and repelled by the same goal. It arises when there are both desirable and undesirable feelings associated with a single goal. For example, you want to marry a girl to whom you love because your parents are not agreeable. You cannot marry her as you do not hurt your parents as well. This kind of conflict is most difficult to resolve and brings emotional discomfort.