NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes

NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Psychology Notes Paper 328.

NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 21 Group Processes, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Group Processes

Chapter: 21


Intext Questions & Answers

Q. 1. Define a group?

Ans. When two or more people interact for achieve a common goal, a group comes into existence.

Q. 2. What is the most important characteristic of a group?

Ans. Interdependence.

Q. 3. Why do people join groups? 

Ans. People join groups because groups:

(a) Help achieving goals.

(b) Have resources.

(c) Meet the need for securitz.

(d) Provide social identity.

Q. 4. Name the four stages in formation of a group.

Ans. Orientation, Focus, Regulation, Formalisation.

Q. 5. What are the two types of groups?

Ans. Primary groups and Secondary groups.

Q. 6. Give an example of a secondary group. 

Ans. Association of teachers.

Q. 7. Why does a group take greater risk than an individual?

Ans. Because in groups there are others to share the blame if failure occurs.

Q.8. What is the social facilitation effect?

Ans. When an individual’s performance improves due to the presence of other people, it is called social facilitation.

Terminal Exercises

1. Define a group.

Ans. At the physical level any collectivity with a purpose can be called a group. A class of fifth grade children is a group. A committee of bank officials is a group, two carpenters manning a saw to cut a large piece of timber form a group, and a team playing football is also a group, and so on. All these groups exist at the physical level and have direct or face to face interaction. In these groups direct and immediate communication among the members of group is possible and usually takes place. The group also has a structure and members think that they are part of a group or have a feeling of belongingness. 

2. List down the characteristics of a group.

Ans. Persons possessing certain common characteristics, too, are conceived to form a group. For example, all Sikh students in a class may be conceived to form a group, all left-handed students in the small class form another set; all elements in the set possess at least one common characteristic which non-members may lack. There need not be any face-to-face communication among the members in such sets. One member may not necessarily know another member.

Thus, it may be said that a group comprises two or more persons who interact and share common goals. They have stable relationships and are interdependent and perceive themselves as belonging to this collectivity.

The most important characteristic of a group is interdependence. It may be related to behaviours and outcomes. Let us examine three types of interdependencies: 

(i) The interdependence of behaviour refers to the fact that the behaviour of one member gives rise to another member’s behaviour and which in turn forces the entire group to perform certain functions.

(ii) The interdependence of outcome refers to the fact that each member’s outcome (received reward) is not the result of his/her behaviour alone but is also dependent upon the behaviour of other group members. For example, while walking on a road, you are safe till someone hits you from the back or the front side. It also implies shared fate, that is, the outcome of an event has more or less equal implications for the welfare of every member of the group.

(iii) Task interdependence refers to the fact that to achieve a goal, group members need to coordinate their activities. For example, in playing football or cricket, coordination of activities. Different players are essential for winning the game. They work on the basis of the principle of complementarity.

3. Describe briefly the four stages in the evolution of groups? 

Ans. The formation of the group follows four stages. These are: (a) orientation (b) focus (c) regulation and (d) formalisation. Let us learn more about the important features of these stages: 

Stage 1 Orientation

In the initial stage of group formation, the potential or would-be members make an attempt to assess their gains and losses for working together and interacting over a period of time. At this stage people judge about their potential and the goals of the group. They become more concerned about their benefits or losses while joining a particular group. People spend much time asking and answering questions about one another’s interests, abilities and knowledge etc.

Stage 2 Focus

When an individual decides that it is in their interest to form a group to achieve a specific goal, their focus gets centred on the means (or how) to achieve the goal. At this point the members become clear about their contribution to achieve the group goal, the other available resources, and the likely benefits to be received by the members of that group.

Stage 3 Regulation

Due to interaction over a longer period of time, a pattern in the social exchange of the group members emerges. The roles and functions of each member are clearly defined. It is at this stage that one member becomes the leader of the group and starts playing a decisive role in shaping the activities of the group. Other members look forward to that leader for guidance.

Stage 4 Formalisation

During this phase, the norms and roles that emerge during the third stage become formalised. Members of the group, either in writing or in their speech, acknowledge the existence of these rules and show their willingness to comply with them. 

4. How does being part of a group affects individual behaviour?

Ans. Becoming a member of a group on the part of an individual appears to influence his or her behaviours in many ways. Let us examine some of the important influences in detail.

Decision Making

It has been found that while making decisions an individual, when left alone, takes less risk. On the other hand, when he or she is present in a group, there appears a tendency on the part of an individual to take a greater amount of risk. The group as a whole takes greater risk than the individual. This phenomenon is popularly known as risky shift.

The question then arises as to why groups take greater risk than individuals? It is believed that it is due to the spread of responsibility. The fact that there are others to share the blame if failure occurs makes each group member feel lesser degree of personal blame for a possible failure. The risky shift also results in part from persuasive communication. If most members of a group agree that risk is the correct response to the problem under consideration, then most of the reasons and justifications brought out in the discussion shall favour risk. 

Social Facilitation

Social facilitation refers to the influence of the presence of others persons on one’s performance. Try to recall your own behaviour. When you are performing an easy task or something which you know very well, there is a possibility that other group members such as parents or teachers will evaluate your work, and you try to show your best performance. On the other hand, such awareness interferes with your ability to perform when the task is complex and your performance decreases.

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