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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 19 Popular Resistance to Company Rule
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Popular Resistance to Company Rule
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.1
Q. 1. How did Indian peasantry met the increasing demand of taxes by Britishers?
Ans: Indian peasantry met the increasing demand of taxes by Britishers by selling their land-holdings.
Q. 2. Under the colonial rule nexus of which agencies was formed to exploit the peasantry?
Ans: Under the colonial rule the nexus of officials of British Government, landlord and moneylender was formed to exploit the peasantry.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.2
Q. 1. The Santhal Rebellion took place in which region?
Ans: The Santhal Rebellion took place in border of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa region.
Q. 2. Which novel immortalize the Sanyasi Rebellion?
Ans: Anand-Math written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.3
Q. 1. What were the grievances of India sepoys?
Ans: Low pay, social discrimination in promotion, pension and terms of service were the grievances of Indian sepoys.
Q. 2. Name any five important leaders of rebellion of 1857.
Ans: Rani Laxmi Bai, Tantia Tope, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Nana Saheb and Kumar Singh of Arrah.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.4
Q. 1. When and how was East India Company’s rule abolished?
Ans: East India Company’s rule was abolished in 1858 through a declaration of Royal Proclamation by the British Crown.
Q. 2. Enlist any three major causes of the failure of the Revolt.
Ans: The three major causes of the failure of the revolt were:
(i) The rebels had supply of arms and ammunitions.
(ii) There was a lack of communication and centralised leadership among the rebels.
(iii) The British had sufficient resources and also arms and equipments.
Q. 1. Explain the nature of the rebellions earlier to the Revolt of 1857.
Ans: The nature of the rebellions earlier to the Revolt of 1857:
(i) Actions of the rebels prove that they were clear about their interest and about their enemies.
(ii) Some features of the peasant and tribal protest movements demonstrate a certain level of political and social consciousness among them.
(iii) In many instances local issues might have triggered off the rebellion. But in the course of the development of the movement, its objective was broadened. Immediate context of a movement may be the oppression of local landlords, once the movement started, it ended up as protest against the British Raj.
(iv) Religious belief, Ethnic ties and traditions played a positive role in mobilising the peasants and strengthening their solidarity. Very often their notions of their own good old past inspired rebels to recover their lost past. Past basically meant to the rebels to get relief from exploitation and oppression.
(v) Attempt was made by the ruling class to define the rebellions as a problem of law and order and act of crime. This is complete denial of the peasants understanding of their grievances and their right to protest. It is necessary to understand the domain of peasant and tribal action in its own terms.
(vi) However, the rebels did not have a future plan beyond the restoration of the old order. In spite of their limited objective and narrow world view the rebels definitely exposed the unpopular character of the colonial rule.
Q. 2. Discuss the causes of the Revolt of 1857.
Ans: The causes of the Revolt of 1857:
(i) The British government by introducing changes in the land revenue system and in the administrative structure made its rule unacceptable to the majority of the local population.
(ii) Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation and the doctrine of lapse, particularly the annexation of Awadh and other parts of north and central India, created widespread discontentment among the local people in this region.
(iii) Land being the major economic resources the various land revenue settlements like the Permanent Settlement, Ryotwari Settlement, Mahalwari Settlement, etc., introduced by the British in India had significant repercussions on land distribution and distribution of power in local society. The new land settlements were basically aimed at increasing the government’s revenue earnings and creating a class of local agents who will stand in support of the British Raj. All these had disastrous consequences on the cultivators and growing revenue demands even compelled Taluqdars and other chiefs to sell their land.
(iv) Money lending and auction of property further added to the hardship of the peasantry.
(v) Artisans and handicrafts men were affected by the promotion of British manufactured goods and neglect of indigenous industry.
(vi) As the social level there was a strong reaction in the local society against the British intervention in their age-old customs and traditions.
(vii) Being guided by the philosophy of racial superiority a section of the British officials was engaged in modernising and civilising India.
(viii) People were apprehensive of the social legislation introduced by the British. Particularly the abolition of Sati and the Widow’s Remarriage Act had a negative effect on the common people. These changes were viewed as intervention in the local tradition and Culture. Added to this was the fear of conversion to Christianity. All these alienated the people From the British Raj.
(ix) The sepoys had their own reasons for resentment. The sepoys were unhappy for low pay and racial discrimination in matters of promotion, pension and terms of service.
(x) Soldiers who were basically hailing from the peasant families were also unhappy with the new land settlements introduced by the British.
(xi) An immediate provocation for sepoys agitation was their suspicion that they would be forced to renounce their cultural ethos of centuries old society. Just before the Revolt of 1857, there was a rumour of bone dust in the Atta (flour) ration. The cartridges of the Enfield rifles, which had to be bitten off before loading, were reportedly greased with pork and beef fat. This was perceived as an attack on the religious belief of the soldiers-both the Hindus and the Muslims.
Q. 3. Explain the significance of the Revolt of 1857.
Ans: Significance of the Revolt of 1857:
(i) Though the British anyhow managed to suppress the revolt but realised the extent of people’s resentment.
(ii) The events of 1857 compelled the British to re-examine their policy towards India, after the revolt; therefore, they adopted a strategy to check the future incidents of such a revolt.
(iii) In order to win back the confidence of local princes, the British made a declaration that they would no longer expand their existing territorial possessions.
(iv) Special awards were given to the loyal princes.
(v) In the recruitment of army, community, caste, tribal and regional loyalties were encouraged in order to check the solidarity among soldiers.
(vi) The British took recourse to the policy of ‘divide and rule’ by tactfully utilising caste, religions and regional identities of Indian people.
(vii) Royal Proclamation in 1858 was declared. By this proclamation India’s administration was taken over directly by the British crown abolishing East India Company’s rule.
(viii) Though the rebels failed, their heroic struggle against the British Raj left a deep. impression in people’s mind.
(ix) The spirit of Indian nationalism was greatly influenced by this Revolt.
Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✓) the correct answer.
Q. 1. The peasantry under the colonial rule was exploited by:
(a) the official.
(b) the landlord.
(c) the money lender.
(d) all of the above.
Ans: (d) all of the above.
Q. 2. The Great Bengal famine took place in :
Ans: (a) 1770
Q. 3. Anand Math was written by:
(a) Bankim Chandra Chatterji.
(b) Devendra Nath Tagore.
(c) Keshab Chandra Sen.
(d) Ram Mohan Roy.
Ans: (a) Bankim Chandra Chatterji.
Q.4. Who created a reign of terror by torturing the peasants in order to collect taxes?
(a) Hukum Singh.
(b) Khem Singh.
(c) Debi Singh.
(d) Ram Nath Singh.
Ans: (c) Debi Singh.
Q. 5. The Mappilas of Malabar were the descendants of the:
(a) Japanese Settlers.
(b) British Settlers.
(c) Portuguese Settlers.
(d) Arab Settlers.
Ans: (d) Arab Settlers.
Q. 6. Kols belonged to:
Ans: (b) Singhbhum.
Q. 7. Who was the tribal leader of Santhals?
(d) (a) and (b)
Ans: (d) (a) and (b)
Q. 8. Who initiated the Revolt of 1857?
(a) Mangal Pandey.
(b) Babu Kunwar Singh.
(c) Laxmi Bai.
(d) Tatya Tope.
Ans: (a) Mangal Pandey.
Q.9. Who was not involved in the Revolt of 1857?
(a) Begum Hazrat Mahal.
(b) Kunwar Singh.
(c) Rani Laxmi Bai.
(d) Maharaja Sindhia.
Ans: (d) Maharaja Sindhia.
Q. 10. Gujarat witnessed the revolt of the
Ans: (c) Kolis.
Q. 11. The Revolt of 1857 broke out on
(a) 10th April.
(b) 10th May.
(c) 10th June.
(d) 10th July.
Ans: (b) 10th May.
Q. 12. Who introduced the policy of annexation?
(a) Lord Dalhousie.
(b) Lord Cornwallis.
(c) Lord Rypon.
(d) Lord Lytton.
Ans: (a) Lord Dalhousie.
Q. 13. The new land settlements were basically aimed at:
(a) increasing the government’s revenue earnings.
(b) creating a class of local agents.
(c) extraction of money from peasants.
(d) (a) and (b)
Ans: (d) (a) and (b)
Q. 14. Which of the following had a negative effect on the common people?
(a) The abolition of Sati.
(b) The Widow Remarriage Act.
(c) Annexation policy of the British.
(d) All of the above.
Ans: (d) All of the above.
Q. 15. Initial disturbances started in March, 1857 at:
Ans: (b) Barrackpore.