NIOS Class 10 Logistics & Supply Chain Management Chapter 5 Technology in Logistic Management

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NIOS Class 10 Logistics & Supply Chain Management Chapter 5 Technology in Logistic Management

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Logistics & Supply Chain Management Chapter 5 Technology in Logistic Management, NIOS Secondary Course Logistics & Supply Chain Management Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Technology in Logistic Management

Chapter: 5

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.1

1. The 13th century __________ was particularly well-known for its efficient and organised logistics system.

Ans: Mongol cavalry.

2. From __________ to __________, record keeping was done manually.

Ans: 1960s to 1970s.

3. The emergence of __________ in the 1980s and internet emergence in the late 1990s fostered this data revolution.

Ans: Personal computers.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.2

1. Early in the __________, intermodal containers permitted the pallets to be transported through ships, trucks, and rail more easily.

Ans: 1950s.

2. IOT stands for?

(A) Internet of Things.

(B) Intranet of Things.

(C) Internet of Time.

(D) Intranet of Time.

Ans: (A) Internet of Things.

3. __________ technology must overcome the barriers of association with problematic cryptocurrencies and confirm its scalability.

(A) IOT.

(B) Blockchain.

(C) EID.

(D) 3D Printing.

Ans: (B) Blockchain.

4. EDI stands for?

(A) Electronic Data Interchange.

(B) Electronic Data Interchange.

(C) Electronic Data Intersection.

(D) Electronic Documents Interchange.

Ans: (A) Electronic Data Interchange.

5. __________ reduces the necessity for long-distance physical transportation of parts and goods.

(A) 3D printing.

(B) IOT.

(C) Blockchain.

(D) EDI.

Ans: (A) 3D printing.

6. The customs clearance functions automation is easing customs clearance and procedures of inspection and is likely to lead to higher competences in __________.

Ans: International express.

TERMINAL EXERCISE

1. Briefly discuss the technological evolution of logistics.

Ans: The evolution of logistics technology has been a journey marked by significant advancements, transforming the way goods are managed, transported, and delivered. 

Here’s a brief overview:

(i) Manual Systems: A manual system, in the context of business operations or information processing, refers to a system where data is processed and tasks are completed without the use of automated tools or software. Instead, they are completed by individuals through manual labour.

(ii) Introduction of Railways and Steamships: The 19th century saw the rise of railways and steamships, revolutionising long-distance transportation and enabling faster movement of goods over land and sea.

(iii) Telecommunications: In the early days of telecom, analog technology was used to convert voice sounds into electrical signals. However, the advent of digital technology in the 1960s and 1970s transformed voice signals into digital data, resulting in improved sound quality and more efficient use of available bandwidth.The  telephones in the late 19th and early 20th centuries facilitated better coordination between different points in the supply chain, improving communication and efficiency.

(iv) Computerization: The earliest known tool used in computation was the Abacus and it is thought to have been invented in 2400 BC. A number of devices based on mechanical principles were invented to help in computing leading to even analog computers. Computational theories also evolved with the advent of logarithms etc. The latter half of the 20th century saw the rise of computers, which revolutionised logistics with capabilities like inventory management, route optimization, and automated tracking systems.

2. List out a few emerging trends in Logistics in the modern era.

Ans: Here are a few emerging trends in logistics in the modern era:

(i) Artificial Intelligence: From enhancing human skills to handling back-office tasks we can streamline logistics processes to remarkable degrees of efficiency. Fed with data collected from IoT systems, Artificial Intelligence controlled automation can be used as a projecting tool in such activities as warehousing, where it can recognize upcoming demand fluctuations to prevent overstocking or shortages. It drives mechanical processes through computer vision and robotic systems and can even smooth customer experiences through assistive bots. Demand analyses by Artificial Intelligence can also weaponise retail and marketing strategies.

(ii) Internet of Things: The connectivity of the IoT-Internet of Things is more than simply a cost cutter: it can improve operational efficiency, improve usage, and increase operational security. The continuous flow of data between Introduction to Logistics devices and logistics providers means supply chains can be self-maintaining and self monitoring. In warehouse settings, smart sensors will notify robots to pick and pack orders or replenishment needs, in autonomous vehicles telematics will optimise delivery routes, renovating the way we staff and operate our logistics functions now and in future. 

(iii) Blockchain: Decentralised ledger technology has the capacity to transform the logistics industry. By eliminating multiple layers of complexity through secure, clear transactional links, blockchains can replace the paperwork out of bills, cut fraud, reduce delays, and cut costs across supply chains. Blockchain technology must overcome the barriers of association with problematic cryptocurrencies and confirm its scalability. But in the future, the secured interconnectivity offered by blockchain might drastically increase speed in payments and bring superior transparency to an industry that can be annoying in its bureaucratic difficulty.

(iv) Virtual Reality and Digital Twins: The digital twin market is expected to be worth $15.66 billion in the year 2023. In the logistics space, the digital twinning and simulations of physical assets have grown into more commonplace as firms virtually monitor, test, and control processes and machinery. Virtual reality is re-establishing realistic digital settings that facilitate immersive e-learning and the training of hazardous processes over safe replication of potentially hazardous environments. It permits planned operating procedures and planned construction layouts to be assessed through digital visualisation, offering opportunities to streamline blueprints and lower costs and flaws. Managers also have the means through Virtual Reality to test, maintain and operate physical assets through their digital twinning from data gathered by Internet of Things (IoT) systems.

(v) Robotics and Automation: All over the world four-fifths of warehouses are running manually, extending enormous potential for automation in logistics processes. Robots have started working collaboratively with humans, reducing monotonous work and providing dynamic labour at times of employee shortages. Robotics will get more sophisticated, with sorting, picking, and packing becoming more ordinary and last-mile deliveries either being carried out assertively or autonomously. Trailer Loading bots will relieve employees of this physically demanding task and utilise Artificial Intelligence to load vehicles in an optimal way.

(vi) 3D Printing: Regional and local supply chains might be redrawn and become further complex, or even removed, as 3D printing reduces the necessity for long-distance physical transportation of parts and goods. Logistics operators will be central to the growth of the sector. In the growing aftermarket sector, logistics operators will be vital to fulfilling warehousing and spare parts needs and can set up global 3D printing plants for on-demand orders. They can also provide postponement services through local distribution centres.

(vii) Augmented Reality: Heads-up visors or other digital devices like smart glasses, warehousing tools can be augmented with barcode readers and other aids to hands-free operations.When linked into management systems, Augmented Reality can support restructured operations and increase productivity. Driving will be safer with assistive devices and navigation, last-mile deliveries may benefit from the application of object recognition software for extensiveness checks, and vehicle loading will be more efficient through space optimization prompts. 

(viii) Self-Driving Vehicles: Last-mile delivery presently accounts for 53% of all transportation costs. Starting from long-haul to last-mile deliveries, driverless vans and trucks will make an impact in the next few years as more than 40 firms continue massive testing of the technology.Long trips require a great turnover of drivers and leave a massive carbon footprint. Introduction to Logistics Autonomous technology can be used to part drive motor vehicles and guide them, supporting drivers physiologically and practically on demanding long runs. It is not just for trucks. Pallet stackers, forklifts, and other worksite and warehouse machinery will become semi-autonomous at least. Long trips require a great turnover of drivers and leave a massive carbon footprint. Introduction to Logistics Autonomous technology can be used to part drive motor vehicles and guide them, supporting drivers physiologically and practically on demanding long runs. It is not just for trucks. Pallet stackers, forklifts, and other worksite and warehouse machinery will become semi-autonomous at least.

3. “Innovative logistic management has made remarkable progress in the development of International Courier /Express services”.

Ans: “Innovative logistic management has made remarkable progress in the development of International Courier /Express services” are:

(i) Global Network Optimization: International courier companies have developed extensive global networks comprising partnerships with local carriers, strategically located hubs, and distribution centres. This network optimization allows for seamless movement of shipments across borders, minimising transit times and improving overall service reliability. 

(ii) Efficiency through Technology: It requires identifying and eliminating the waste of time, resources, materials and money while improving the overall quality of services or products. Businesses can achieve this by streamlining processes, automating tasks and utilising technology to optimise workflows. Advanced technologies such as GPS tracking, real-time route optimization algorithms, and automated sorting systems have significantly enhanced the efficiency of international courier services. These technologies enable precise tracking of shipments, optimise delivery routes, and streamline sorting processes, resulting in faster and more reliable deliveries.

(iii) Flexible Delivery Options: Innovative logistic management has led to the introduction of flexible delivery options tailored to meet the diverse needs of customers. International courier services now offer features such as scheduled delivery slots, rerouting capabilities, and alternative delivery locations, providing customers with greater control and convenience over their shipments. 

4. Write a short on automation on custom clearance, cloud logistics and cross border e- commerce.

Ans: Cross-border e-commerce platform logistics refers to the shipping and delivery processes involved in the international trade of goods through online platforms. These logistics services play a crucial role in ensuring that products ordered from one country can be efficiently and reliably delivered to customers in another country. There are various cross-border e-commerce platform logistics providers, and their differences lie in the services they offer, shipping methods, delivery times, and overall efficiency. Cross-border e-commerce refers to online transactions involving the purchase and sale of goods between buyers and sellers in different countries. Automation plays a crucial role in facilitating cross-border e-commerce by streamlining order processing, payment, and fulfilment processes. Automated translation services help overcome language barriers, while automated tax and duty calculation tools ensure compliance with international trade regulations. Furthermore, logistics automation solutions, such as automated order routing and inventory synchronisation, enable efficient order fulfilment and delivery, enhancing the customer experience in cross-border transactions. 

Here are some key aspects that differentiate cross-border e-commerce platform logistics:

(i) Shipping Methods: Different logistics providers offer various shipping methods, including standard shipping, express shipping, and freight services. The choice of shipping method affects the delivery time and cost.

(ii) Delivery Time: The time it takes for a product to be delivered to the customer can vary significantly between different logistics providers. Some may offer faster delivery options at a higher cost, while others focus on more economical but slower shipping.

(iii) Customs Clearance: Cross-border shipments involve passing through customs, and logistics providers may differ in their efficiency in handling customs clearance processes. Some providers have established partnerships and streamline processes to expedite customs clearance, reducing the likelihood of delays. 

5. How does 3D printing technology contribute towards the development of logistic networks?

Ans: 3D printing technology contribute towards the development of logistic networks are mentioned below:

(i) Reduced Transportation Costs: By enabling localised production, 3D printing reduces the need for long-distance transportation of finished goods. This reduces transportation costs and dependency on traditional global supply chains, leading to more efficient logistic networks. 

(ii) Faster Time-to-Market: The most effective ways to speed up time to market is to prioritise and streamline development processes. This can involve identifying and eliminating bottlenecks in the development process, as well as focusing on the most important features and functionality for a product or application.With 3D printing, products can be rapidly prototyped and manufactured, reducing the time required to bring new products to market. This agility in production leads to shorter lead times and faster response to changing consumer demands, enhancing the overall efficiency of logistic networks.

(iii) Inventory Optimization: Inventory optimization is the process of strategically managing and controlling stock levels in order to maximise efficiency, minimise costs, and meet customer demand. 3D printing allows for on-demand production, eliminating the need for extensive warehousing and reducing inventory carrying costs. Logistic networks benefit from optimised inventory levels and reduced risk of overstocking or stockouts.

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