Environmental Science Free eBook
Table of Contents
Environmental Science Free eBook education is a process of development that includes the three major activities, teaching, training, and instruction. Teaching is social as well as a professional activity. It is science as well as art. Modern education is not in a sphere but it has a long and large area of study. Nowadays most part of the world population is facing different problems related with nature and they are studying the solutions to save the nature and global problems, but on the second hand we even today do not try to understand our local problems related to nature. So for the awareness of the problems of nature and pollution the higher education commission has suggested adding the Environmental Science in the course of different levels.
Environmental Science Free eBook Download
- Definition, Scope, and Importance
- Natural Resources
- Biodiversity and Conservation
- Pollution and its Factors
- Social Issues
- Human Population and Environment 220
- Field Trip
- Modern Methods
- Modern Library
- Modern and Effective Teacher
Overview of Environmental Science
The science of Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science because it comprises various branches of studies like chemistry, physics, medical science, life science, agriculture, public health, sanitary engineering, etc. It is the science of physical phenomena in the environment. It studies of the sources, reactions, transport, effect and fate of physical a biological species in the air, water and soil and the effect of human activity upon these.
Literary environment means the surrounding external conditions influencing development or growth of people, animal or plants; living or working conditions, etc. This involves three questions:
1. What is Surrounded
The answer to this question is living objects in general and man in particular.
2. By what Surrounded
The physical attributes are the answer to this question, which becomes the environment. In fact, the concern of all education is the environment of man. However, man cannot exist or be understood in isolation from the other forms of life and from plant life. Hence, the environment refers to the sum total of condition, which surrounds point in space and time. The scope of the term Environment has been changing and widening by the passage of time. In the primitive age, the environment consisted of only physical aspects of the planted earth’s land, air, and water as biological communities. As time passed on man extended his environment through his social, economic and political functions.
3. Where Surrounded
The answer to this question. It is in nature that physical component of the plant earth, viz land, air, water, etc., support and affects life in the biosphere. According to a Goudie, the environment is the representative of physical components of the earth wherein man is an important factor affecting the environment.
i. Definitions of Environment: Some important definitions of the environment are as under:
- Boring: A person’s environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he receives from his conception until his death.’ It can be concluded from the above definition that Environment comprises various types of forces such as physical, intellectual, economic, political, cultural, social, moral and emotional. The environment is the sum total of all the external forces, influences, and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior and the growth, development, and maturation of living organisms.
- Douglas and Holland: ‘The term environment is used to describe, in the aggregate, all the external forces, influences, and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior and the growth, development, and maturity of living organisms.
ii. Scope of Environment: The environment consists of four segments as under:
1. Atmosphere: The atmosphere implies the protective blanket of gases, surrounding the earth:
- It sustains life on the earth.
- It saves it from the hostile environment of outer space.
- It absorbs most of the cosmic rays from outer space and a major portion of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
- It transmits only here ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared radiation (300 to 2500 nm) and radio waves. (0.14 to 40 m) while filtering out tissue-damaging ultraviolet waves below about 300 nm.
The atmosphere is composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Besides, argon, carbon dioxide, and trace gases.
2. Hydrosphere: The Hydrosphere comprises all types of water resources oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, reservoir, polar ice caps, glaciers, and groundwater.
- Nature 97% of the earth’s water supply is in the oceans,
- About 2% of the water resources are locked in the polar icecaps and glaciers.
- Only about 1% is available as fresh surface water-rivers, lakes streams, and groundwater fit to be used for human consumption and other uses.
3. Lithosphere: Lithosphere is the outer mantle of the solid earth. It consists of minerals occurring in the earth’s crusts and the soil e.g. minerals, organic matter, air, and water.
4. Biosphere: Biosphere indicates the realm of living organisms and their interactions with the environment, viz atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
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