Cognitive Learning

Cognitive Learning is the TET Notes to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different TET syllabus wise notes for Cognitive Learning.

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Cognitive Learning

Also, you can read the Assam TET online notes in these sections as per Assam TET Syllabus guidelines. These notes are part of Assam TET All Subject. Here we have given Assam TET Concept of Cognitive Learning for All notes, You can practice these here.

Cognitive Learning

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PEDAGOGY

COGNITIVE LEARNING

Some psychologists view learning in terms of cognitive processes that underlie it. They have developed approaches that focus on such processes that occur during learning rather than concentrating solely on SR and S-S connections. Thus, in cognitive leaming, there is a change in what the learner knows rather than what he/she does. This form of learning shows up in insight learning and latent learning.

Insight Learning

Kohler demonstrated a model of learning which could not be readily explained by conditioning. He performed a series of experiments with chimpanzees that involved solving complex problems. Kohler placed chimpanzees in an enclosed play area where food was kept out of their reach. Tools such as poles and boxes were placed in the enclosure. The chimpanzees rapidly learned how to use a box to stand on or a pole to move the food in their direction In this experiment, learning did not occur as a result of trial and error and reinforcement, but came about in sudden flashes of insight. The chimpanzees would roam about the enclosure for some time and then suddenly would stand on a box, grab a pole and strike a banana, which was out of normal reach above the enclosure The chimpanzee exhibited what Kohler called insight learning the process by which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes clear.

In a normal experiment on insight learning. A problem is presented, followed by a period of time when no apparent progress is made and finally a solution suddenly emerges. In insight learning, a sudden solution is the rule, Once the solution has appeared. it can be repeated immediately the next time the problem is confronted. Thus, it is clear that what is learned is not a specific set of conditioned associations between stimuli and responses but a cognitive relationship between a means and an end. As a result, insight learning can be generalised to other similar problem situations.

Latent Learning

Another type of cognitive learning is known as latent learning. In latent learning, a new behaviour is learned but not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided for displaying it, Tolman made an early contribution to the concept of latent learning. To have an idea of latent learning. we may briefly understand his experiment. Tolman put two groups of rats in a maze and gave them an opportunity to explore. In one group, rats found food at the end of the maze and soon learned to make their way rapidly through the maze. On the other hand, rats in the second group were not rewarded and showed no apparent signs of learning. But later, when these rats were reinforced, they ran through the maze as efficiently as the rewarded group.

Tolman contended that the unrewarded rats had learned the layout of the maze carly in their explorations. They just never displayed their latent learning until the reinforcement was provided. Instead, the rats developed a cognitive map of the maze, L.e. a mental representation of the spatial locations and directions, which they needed to reach their goal.

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