Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Process of Social Change in India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Process of Social Change in India and select need one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Process of Social Change in India
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Long type question and answer
Q.1. Explain briefly the different characteristic of modernization?
Ans: Some characteristic of modernisation are :-
(1) Modernisation refers to the process of change – brought out by scientific and technological development.
(2) The term ‘modernisation ‘ has been used to refer to the path of development that Europe and America has taken.
(3) The process of modernisation leads to secularisation.
Q.2. What are the features of industrialisation?
Ans: Urbanization, loss of face to face relationship in workplace, enormous divisions of labour etc. Are some of the social feature of industrialization.
Q.3. What are the consequences of the process of industrialisation? Explain them in detail.
Ans: The process of industrialisation leads to urbanisation. As industry provides employments avenues, people from remote villages migrates to the industrial centres, leaving behind the members of their families in their natal villages. Thus. family system changed due to the process of industrialization.
The process of industrialization has led to the emergency of slum areas in the industrial centres. The lowly paid workers of the industries were compelled to live in very poor conditions and thus slum areas emerged in industrial centres.
Industrialization also leads to greater equality. In factories caste distinctions don’t matter any more. Thus in India, industrialization helped in establishment of social equality.
Q.4. Highlight the main social aspects of the process of urbanisation.
Ans: Urbanisation has led to the decline of extended or joint family system in India. In industrial urban centers nuclear family system has gained popularity. While writing about the urban impact on Indian villages sociologists M. S. A Rao mentioned about three different situations of urban impact. Firstly, the villagers, leaving the families in their natal villages have sought employment in far off cities.
By sending money to their families and by vising natal homes, they keep their family relationships alive. In may villages of Gujarat, a considerable number of emigrants reside in overseas towns. Such overseas migrants have built fashionable houses in their natal village, inverted money on land and industry and have also donated for establishment of educational institution.
The second kind of urban impact is to be seen in villages, which is situated near industrial town. When an industrial town comes up in the midst of villages, some villages are totally uprooted, while the lands of other villages are partially acquired. With the influx of immigrant workers, demand for houses become a necessity.
Q.5. How is colonialism different from earlier forms of conquest or domination and in what ways did it affect Indian society?
Ans: The impact of colonial rule in distinguishable from all other earlier rules because the changes it brought in were far reaching and deep. Moreover,the earlier forms of conquest of domination was mostly concerned with exacting a continuous flow of tribute. The pre-capitalist conquerors didn’t interfere with the economic base of the subjugated country. On the other hand, British colonialism – directly interfered in the economy of the country to ensure greatest profit and benefit to British capitalism. Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism.
The changes brought by colonialism to Indian society were for reaching and irreversible colonial rule unified all of India for the first time and brought in the forces of modernisation and capitalist economic change. Colonialism introduced modern education system, particularly English education in India. It also introduced modern means of transport and communication like roads, railways, telecommunications, press etc. in India. As a result of all these Indian society changed tremendously.
Q.6. Which changes came to Indian society due to social movements?
Ans: In India social reforms movements emerged in the 19th century to address the social evils that plagued Indian society. The burning issues of that time were sati, child marriage, widow remarriage, caste discrimination etc. As a result of social movements, which were initiated by social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Vidyasagar, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Jyotiba Phule, Sir Syeh Ahmed Khan etc.the colonial Goverment took step to prohibit the evils like sati, child marriage etc. As a result of these social movements the Britishers introduced modern English education in India. Women education also picked up momentum. Caste discrimination also reduced considerably. Modern social organisation like the Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, All India Muslim Ladies conference were set-up due to result of these social movements. These organisation spreader new ideas of liberalism and freedom, new ideas of home making and marriage, new roles for mothers and daughters etc. Which helped tremendously in reforming Indian society.
Q.7. What were the impacts of westernisation in India society.
Ans: The impact of westernisation on Indian society is extensive and far reaching. The westernisation process itself indicates the changes that occurred in Indian society as western impact. M. N. Srinivas defined westernisation as “the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring in different levels, technology, institutions, ideology and values.
” As a result of westernisation thinking pattern and ways of living of the Indians changed. As a result of English education Indians come to know about the struggle for liberty and equality in Europe in America. Moreover, westernisation also influenced Indian art and literature. Artists like Ravi Varma, Bankimchandra etc. were influenced by western style and techniques.
A part from all these, westernisation multiplied the process of industrialisation, urbanisation as well as secularisation.
Q.8. What is the meaning of secularisation? Explain it’s different elements.
Ans: Secularization means process of decline in the influence of religion. The theorists of modernization believes that modern societies have become increasingly secular. Indicators of secularization are declining influence of religions organizations upon the people, declining levels of involvement with religions organizations etc.
Modernisation is an important element of secularisation. Normally, modernization leads to secularization. One aspect of modernity is that science take precedence over those of the emotions, the sacred and the non-rational. With the unprecedented growth of science and technology, the pace of modernization and secularisation also increased.
Religious taboos and beliefs declined with the spread of scientific knowledge. The overwhelming power of religious institutions declined as rationalism took place of emotion. Thus, the process of modernization leads to secularization.
However, this is not always the case. In recent years we have seen unprecedented growth of religious consciousness all over the world. Though people are using most modern means of transport and communication, yet religious consciousness of people have also increased recently and interestingly, they are these techniques to spread religions beliefs and sentiments.
Q.9. Compare and contrast sanskritisation and westernisation as processes of social change in Indian society.
Ans: Sociologists M. N. Srinivas coined the word ‘sanskritisation’ and discussed about the process in details. Simply, sanskritisation suggest a process, whereby a low caste wants to improve its status through adoption of names and customs of culturally high-placed groups. Though sanskritisation primarily takes place within the Hindu space, Srinivas argued that it was visible even in sects and religious groups outside Hinduism. Studies shows that sanskritisation operated differently in different parts of the country.
In regions where sanskritised caste dominant, the culture of the region underwent a certain amount of sankritisation. On the other hand, where non-sanskritic castes was domination, their influence was stronger. In Punjab sanskritic influence was never strong, rather Persian influence was the dominant one.
According to M.N.srinivas ,westernisation implies the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of British rule at different levels like technology, institution, ideology, and values.
Srinivas suggested that while lower castes sought to be sanskritised, upper castes sought to be westernised. However, such generalisation is not valid for a diverse country like India. Some studies in Kerala shows conscious efforts made by lower castes to get westernise.
As a process of social change ,westernisation brought structural changes to Indian society, while stratification failed to brought any structural changed to Indian society. Sanskritisation only implies position change of some individuals. Moreover,the process sanskritisation is value ladden as it acknowledge the rituals and life styles of upper castes as superior and that of the lower castes as inferior. On the other hand the process of modernisation is value-neutral . It leads to secularisation.
Q.10. Summarize the major changes in the institution of caste from colonial times to the present day.
Ans: The institution of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. The 1901 census, under the direction of Herbert Risky, was particularly important as it collected information on the social hierarchy of caste I.e. the position of each caste in the rank order. Scholars effect that this kind of direct attempt to count caste and to officially record caste status changed the institution itself. Before this kind of intervention, caste identities had been less rigid; once they began to be computed and recorded, caste identities become more rigid.
The land revenue settlement laws gave legal recognition to caste based rights of the upper castes. These castes now become land owners in modern sens rather than feudal lords with claims on produce of the land. Thus, upper castes became land owners.
Towards the end of the colonial period, the British administration took interest in the welfare of downtrodden castes, referred as the ‘depressed classes ‘ at that time. The govt.of India Act 1935 gave legal recognition to the lists or schedules of caste and tribes to provide special treatment by the state. Thus, the term ‘scheduled Tribes’ and ‘scheduled castes’ came into being. The present system of reservation for S. C., S. T. Came into being in the colonial period.
In the contemporary period, caste has tended to become invisible for the upper castes. Urban middle and upper castes. These groups have benefited the most from the development polices taken by the govt.of independent India. Getting benefit from subsidised public education and taking advantage of the expansion of state sectors jobs in the early decades after independence, such groups became leader of the entire society. For this groups, it now seems that caste plays no part In their public lives, being limited to the personal sphere of religious practice, marriage and kinship. In this, sense, caste became relatively invisible for the urban upper castes.
For the scheduled castes, tribes and backward castes, caste identity has tended to eclipse the other dimension of their identity. As these backward castes had no inherited educational and social capital and as they have to compete with an already entrenched upper castes group, they have to redy on their caste identity, because caste is one of few collective assets they have. The lower castes always tried to exert political pressure upon the govt.to safeguard these lifelines. Thus, caste identity has become all important, often the only aspect of their identity.
Q.11. What is meant by secularisation of caste? Explain with examples.
Ans: In traditional India caste system operated within a religious framework, where the belief system of purity and pollution were central to its practice. But now,this traditional belief system of purity and pollution centering around caste system is waring. In present day India, caste works as political pressure groups.
Caste based political parties are also very common in India. Such a changing role of caste has been described as secularization of caste. In India, caste structure provides one of the principal organizational clusters alone which the bulk of the population is bound to live.
The Bahujan Samajbadi party in U. P.is good example. The party works as a platform for Harijans and other lower castes.
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