Class 12 History Chapter 4 Thinkers Beliefs And Buildings

Class 12 History Chapter 4 Thinkers Beliefs And Buildings The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year History Chapter 4 Thinkers Beliefs And Buildings and select needs one.

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Class 12 History Chapter 4 Thinkers Beliefs And Buildings

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 History Chapter 4 Thinkers Beliefs And Buildings Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Thinkers Beliefs And Buildings

Chapter – 4

PART – I

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Mention the names of high thinkers related in between the period 600 BCE to 600 CE. 

Ans : i) Zarathustra in Iran. 

ii) Kong Zi in China.

iii) Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Greece. 

iv) Mahavira and Gautam Bhudda in India. 

Q.2. Write the name of regions and countries where message spread of Buddha. 

Ans : Buddha’s message spread through Central Asia to China, Korea and Japan and through Sri Lanka, across the seas to Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. 

Q.3. Write the Incarnations of Isvara according to Matsya Purana. 

Ans : i) Varaha.

ii) Vaman.

iii) Kurma.

iv) Narsingh.

v) Matsya.

vi) Ram.

vii) Parsuram.

viii) Krishna.

ix) Buddha (Mahabharat mention of Hamsa not of Buddha).

x) Kali.

Q.4. What is Gandhara School of Art? 

Ans : With advent of Greeks in India, Indian artists and sculptors learnt the Greek art of making images of Greek and the Roman gods. Indian artists working in Gandhara were interested in this new style of sculpture and were influenced by it. The statues of the Buddha and other scenes from Buddha’s life resembled to Greek style and this type of art came to be known as Gandhara School of Art. 

Q.5. What do you mean by Jina? 

Ans: Jina : The word meaning of Jina is the conqueror. uosiəd attains Kaivalya i.e. the supreme knowledge and final deliverance from the bonds of pleasure and pain. For example – Vardhaman Mahavira at the age of 42 attained Kaivalya, the supreme knowledge and final deliverance from bonds of pleasure and pain. 

Q.6. Make a list of objectives of sacrifice. 

Ans: i) offerings were made so as to reach the deities. 

ii) To attain abundant food.

iii) To attain wonderful cow. and

iv) To get a son, offspring that continues their line or clan. 

Q.7. Where is the Stupa of Sanchi situated? Explain its any one feature. 

Ans: The Sanchi Stupa is the most wonderful ancient building in the state of Bhopal. It is situated in a village named Sanchi Kanakhera. This village is on the top of a hill. In fact the Stupa is nearly twenty miles north-east of Bhopal. It looks like a crown. 

Q.8. Give the name of the person, who was instrumental, in admission of women to the Sangha. Name the first woman who was ordained as bhikkhuni. 

Ans: As per Buddhist text Ananda was instrumental in the admission of women to the Sangha. It was on the mediation and persuasion of Ananda (Budhha’s favourite disciple) that women were allowed into the Sangha. 

Buddha’s foster mother Mahapajapati Gotami was the first woman to be ordained as bhikkhuni.

Q.9. What is meant by Tipitaka? Give the names. 

Ans : Tipitaka literally means three baskets to hold different types of texts. It refers to the Buddhist texts –

i) Vinaya pitaka .

ii) Sutta Pitaka. and 

ii) Abhidhamma Pitaka. 

Q.10. Mention the “Four Great Sights” of Buddhism. 

Ans : The sight of an old man, a sick man and a dead body made Buddha think seriously of the futility of worldly pleasures. 

He also saw an ascetic whose calm, serenity attracted him. He realized that the ascetic had come to terms with old age, disease and death and had found peace. These sights influenced him to leave the palace in search for him truth. 

B. Textual Questions & Answers: 

Q.1. Were the ideas of the Upanishadic thinkers different from those of the fatalists and materialists? Give reason for your answer. 

Ans : I think the ideas of fatalists and materialists were not different from those of the Upanishad thinkers. I am giving the following reason for my answer- 

The basic philosophy of Jain was already in existence of north India before the birth of Vardhman or Mahavir. Ahinsa is equally unfinished by Jain texts, Budhist texts Upanishad all Hindus believe Ahinsa Parmo Dharma(i.e.Ahinsa is supreme religion). Upanishad believe in Karma theory. Its literacy meaning that one should performed his karm or action or duty without carrying its results. Fatalist also believe that one should be carefree because everything is pre-decided. Fatalist and materialists both believe that human being is made up of four elements the Earth, the water, the air, and senses these pass into space.

Q.2. Summarize the central teaching of Jainism. 

Ans: The important teachings of Jainism are as follows- The entire world is animated. It is believed that even the stones, rocks and water have life. No living being should be given any injury. The basic philosophy of jainism is not to learn or cause injury to human- beings, animals, plants and insects. There is a great emphasis on principal of Ahinsa. The cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma. If one is to escape is cycle of karma, one must practice asceticism and penance. It is possible if one resources the world. So one has to live in monastery of attain salvation. Jain monks nuns used to take five bows such as-

a) Not to kill any one .

b) Not to steal anything .

c) not to tell a lie .

d) not to posses property .

e) To observe celibacy. 

Q.3. Discuss the role of the begums of Bhopal in preserving the stupa at Sanchi. 

Ans : Shahjehan Begum and Sultan Jehan Begum provided money for the preservation of the Sanchi Stupa. A guest house and museum also built here by Sultan Jehan Begum. 

Q.4. Read this short inscription and answer: 

In the year 33 of the maharaja Huvishka (a kushana ruler), in the first month of the hot season on the eighth day, a Bodhishtta was set up at Madhuvanaka by the bhikkhuni Buddhamita, who knows the Tipitaka, The female pupil of the bhikkhu Bala, the female pupil of the bhikkhu Bala, who knows the Tipitaka, together with her father and mother. 

a) How did Dhanavti date her description? 

b) Why do you think she installed a image of the bodhisattva? 

c) Who were the relatives she mentioned? 

d) What Buddhist text did she know? 

e) From whom did she learn this text? 

Ans : a) Dhanavati dated the period according to the 33 year of the reign of the them ruler huvishka, the month as per the season- hot, and date as 8th day of the hot season. This shows the importance of periodisation and dating in history. 

b) She installed the image of the Buddhists as a mark of her religious devotion. 

c) She mentions father, mother, aunt/ mother’s sister. 

d) She knew the Triptika.

e) She learnt the text from the member of the Sangha, Bikkuni Buddhamita. 

Q.5. Why do you think women and men joined the Sangha?

Ans : The men and women probably went to the Sanghas due to the following reasons:

a) They wanted to remain away from the worldly pleasures.

b) The life in the Sanghas was simple and disciplined. 

c) They could deeply study the Buddhist philosophy by staying in the Sanghas. 

d) Many people entered the Sanghas to become teachers of Dhamma. They went on to become theirs or respected women who had attained liberation. 

e) All were considered equal in the Sanghas.There were kings wealthy man and chapatis. There were also the humble-folk the workers, The slaves and the craftsmen. no body had an earlier social identity after becoming bhikkhus or bhikkhunis.

f) The internal functioning of the Sanghs was democratic. It emphasised consensus through discussion. If there was no consensus, decision were taken on the basis of votes. 

Write a Short Essay on the Following

Q.6. To what extent knowledge of buddhist literature help in understanding the sculpture at Sanchi? 

Ans : Buddhist literature help us upto some extent in understanding the sculpture at Sanchi. Buddha tried to convassed people and his followers though reason and presentation rather than through displays of super natural power. Buddha declared that the world is transited and continuously changing. Through the given picture different stages and activities of life have been depicted. The people are sitting in different poses. They are holding different tools, implements and things. Buddha persisted that this world is full of sorrows. 

Some depiction express that some people are not happy seeing the world. Buddha asked the followers to follow the middle path. According to him everyday can do it through the pursuit of a path of modernisation between serve penance and indulgence. Buddhist literature explain why and how the sculpture at Sanchi were made. Both science from Sanchi which have been depicted that architecture and sculpture developed during the period of our study related with this chapter 600BC to 600 CE.

Q.7.Fig 4.32 and 4.33 are two scenes from Sanchi. Describe what you see in each of them, focussing on the architecture, plants and animals, and the activities. Identify which are shows a rural scene and which an urban scene giving reason for your answer. 

Class 12 History Chapter 4

Ans : Fig. 4.32 is parts of the north pillar at Sanchi. All pillars bear curving with various stories from the Buddhas life or past lives. This panel according to art art historians depicts the Shyma Jataka. Bodhisattva born as Shyama, was the only caretaker for his blind parents. One day he went to the river to fetch water, but was short at by the king of Banaras, who mistook him for a drinking animal. The arrow being poisonous killed Shyama back to life and restored the sight of the parents, the panel is very intricately carved. There are probably lotus purpers with flowers along the margin. There are plants and banana tree representing village/ forest scene. Water is indicated by wavy lines and lotus flowers are sun. Deer and buffaloes are intricately carved. 

Reasons: In the panel at the top we see two huts in which Buddhisattavas’s parents are shown seated. Below on the left, is the king hunter with a bow and arrow. The king is shown in three different poses. First shooting the boy, then standing with his bow and standing penitently before the boy. In front is the river or pond with the lotuses,on the bank is Shyama with the pitcher and with him probably Indra.Deer and buffaloes indicate that it is a forest near a village. 

The panels are part of the eastern gateway, north pillar at Sanchi. The panels seem to depict royal figures of Gods with attendants. The panels are therefore taken to represent heavily scenes. This assumption is supported by the central figure in the depictions, who holds a thunderbolt in his right hand and may therefore, be Indra. The panel is very intricately carved and could be the supported with capitals of winged animals seated back to back e.g. elephants, horses, lion. Below the panels separating one scene from the other is boarder resembling a wonder or bamboo fence. Fig. 4.33 depicts an urban scene. Seems as though the heavenly gods and attendants are overlooking the procession, or happenings below. 

Q.8. Discuss the developement in sculptor and architecture associated with the rise of Vaishnavism and Shaivism. 

Ans : In Shaivism, Shiv was regarded as the chief God and was symbolised by the linga although he was occasionally represented in human form as wall. Various temple were also built to house images of these two gods. The earliest temples had a small square room called the garbha-griha which had a single doorway for the worshipper to enter and offer worship to the image. Latter a still structure known as the Shikhara was built over the central shrine. Temple walls came to be decorated with sculptures. Temples also become move elaborated with assembly halls and huge walls and gateways and arrangements for the supplying water. 

The brihadeswara temple at Tanjore has been dedicated to lord Shiva. The temple is 65 meters high and is built in a way that its shadow does not fall on the ground. its most striking feature is its 57 meter high Vimana. The kailashnath temple which has been carved out of a single piece of rock has been dedicated to Shiva. In Vaishnavism, Vishnu was worshipped as principal deity. Ten avatars have been identified who are believed to make their appearance to save the world whenever it was threatened by evil forces. Many of them have been depicted in various sculptures. A sculpture depicting Varaha or boar avatar vishnu rescuing the earth Goddess is to be found in Aihole. A sculpture of vishnu reclining the serpent Sheshnag is to be found in Deogarh. The Vithala temple situated at Hampi was dedicated to lord vishnu. This temple complex has many buildings. Besides the main Shrine, it has a kalyan Mandapa and a Amman Shrine. 

Q.9. Discuss how and why stupas were build. 

Ans : Different stupas were built in different ways. Each stupa has a. history of its own -for a example in 1796 a local Raja who wanted to built a temple stumbled upon the ruins of the stupa at Amaravati. The king decided to use the stone and thought there might be treasures buried in what seemed to be a hill. British official named colin Mackenzic, visited the site. Although he found several pieces of sculpture and made detailed drawings of them, These reports were never published. In 1854 the commissioner of Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, visited Amaravati and collected several sculptured and panels took them away to Madras. 

These came to be called the Elliot marbles after him. He also discovered the remains of the western gateway and came to the conclusion that the structure at Amaravati Buddhist stupas ever built. By the 1850s some of the sculpted slabs Amaravati began to be taken to different places; to the Asiatic Society of Bengal at Calcutta, to the India office in Madras and some as far as London. It was not unusual for the Sculpture to be adorning the gardens of British administrators. In fact, each new official who was appointed in the area continued to remove sculpture from site on the ground that earlier official had done the same. 

The stupa (a sanskrit word meaning a heap) originated as a simple semi-cultural mound of earth, later called the anda, Gradually it evolved into a more complex structure, balancing round and square shapes. Above the anda was the harmika, a balcony like structure that represented the abode of the gods Arising from the harmika was a mast called the yastii, often surmounted by the Chhatri or umbrella. Around the mound was a railing and separating the scared space from the secular world outside. 

The early stupas at sanchi and Bharhut were plain except for the stone railings, which resembled a bamboo and wooden fence, and the gateways which were richly carved and installed at the four cardinal points. Worshippers entered through the eastern gateway and walked around the mound in a clockwise direction keeping the mound of the right, imitating the sun’s course through the sky. Later, the mound 

of the stupas came to be elaborately carved with niches and sculptures as at Amaravati, and Shah-ji-ki-Dheri in Peshawar (Pakistan). Inscription found on the railings and pillars record donation made for building and decorating stupas. Some donations made by kings such as the Satavahanas, others were made by guilds, such as that of the ivory workers who donated part of one of the gateways at Sanchi. 

Hundreds of donations were made by women and men who mention their names, sometimes adding the same of the place from where they came, names of their relatives, as well as their occupations. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis also contributed towards building these monuments. 

Map Work

Q.10. On an outline world map, mark the areas to which Buddhism spread. Trace the land and sea routes from the subcontinent to these areas. 

Ans :               

Class 12 History Chapter 4 Map 1

C. Passage Based Question & Answers: 

Read the following extract and answer the questions based on it : 

RULES FOR MONKS AND NUNS

These are some of the rules laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka : When a new felt (blanket/rug) has been made by a Bhikkhu, it is to be kept for (at least) six years. If after less than six years he should have another new felt (blanket/rug) made, regardless of whether or not he has disposed of the first, then – unless he has been authorised by the Bhikkhus – it is to be forfeited and confessed. 

In case a Bhikkhu arriving at a family residence is presented with cakes or cooked grain -meal, he may accept two or three bowlfuls if he so desires. If he should accept more than that, it is to be confessed. Having accepted the two or three bowlfuls and having taken then from there, he is to share them among the Bhikkhus. This is the proper course here. 

Should a Bhikkhu, having set out bedding in a lodging belonging to the Sangha – or having had it set out – and then on departing neither put it away nor have it put away, or hould he go without taking leave, it is to be confessed. 

a) In which Buddhist text were these rules to be found ? 

Ans: These rules were found in the Vinaya Pitaka. 

b) State three basic rules mentioned in this extract.

Ans: A Bhikkhu had to ensure that his blanket/rug lasted for at least six years. When he visits any household and is presented with food he was to accept only two ore three bowls of food. Food should also be taken to the Sangha and shared with the other Bhikkhus. 

Thirdly the Bhikkhus should put away their bedding in the Sangha when they depart.

c) Why do you think these rules were framed ? 

Ans: These rules were framed in order to teach them the dignity of labour, and to enable them to lead frugal and austere lives.

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