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Class 12 Economics Chapter 16 Development Experiences Of India: A Comparison With Neighbours
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Development Experiences Of India: A Comparison With Neighbours
PART – B
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWERS
1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) First Five Year Plan of commenced in the year 1956. (Pakistan/China)
Ans : Pakistan
(b) Maternal mortality rate is high in (China/Pakistan)
Ans : Pakistan
(c) Proportion or people below poverty line is more in (India/Pakistan)
Ans : India
(d) Reforms in were introduced in 1978. (China/Pakistan)
Ans : China
B. SHORT & LONG TYPE QUESTION AND ANSWER:
1. Why are regional and economic groupings formed?
Ans : With the unfolding of the globalisation process, developing countries are keen to understand the developmental processes pursed by their neighbours as they face competition from developed nations as also amongst themselves. So, every nations have been primarily trying to adopt various means which will strengthen their own domestic economies. To this effect, they are forming regional and global economic groupings such as the SAARS, G-8, G-20, BRIC etc.
2. What are the various means by which countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economies?
Ans : (a) Formation of regional and economic groupings
(b) Common economic activities.
(c) Liberal economic restructuring.
(d) Economic transformation due to globalisation
(e) Human Resource Development
3. What similar developmental strategies have India and Pakistan followed for their respective developmental paths?
Ans : Pakistan also follows the mixed economy model with co-existence of public and private sectors like India.
The introduction of ‘Green Revolution’ led the mechanisation and increase in public investment in infrastructure in selected areas.
In India, in the 1970’s nationalisation of capital goods industries took place. Pakistan then shifted its policy orientation in the lake 1970s and 1980s.
4. Explain the ‘Great Leap Forward’ campaign of China as initiated in 1958.
Ans : The Great Leap Forward (GLF) Campaign was initiated to adopt industrialisation at large scale. In it, people were encouraged to set up industries in their backwards.
5. China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in 1978. Do you agree? Elucidate.
Ans : Yes, I agree. In the initial phase reforms were made in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors. In the second phase reforms were introduced in the industrial sector. In addition, the dual pricing policy was adopted in China. In it different price was fixed for inputs and outputs. Therefore it can be said, that China’s rapid industrial growth is all due to its reforms introduced in 1978.
6. Describe the path of developmental initiatives taken by Pakistan for its economic development.
Ans : Pakistan changed it policy in the end of decade 1970 & 1980. It promoted privatisation and denationalisation for economic development. Financial aid was given to Pakistan by Western countries and non-residents of Pakistan remitted the wealth to their country. As a result investment was promoted in the country and development policies got the momentum.
7. What is the important implication of the ‘one child norm’ in China?
Ans : Important implication are –
(a) Decline in sex ratio. The proportion of females decreased in comparison to males.
(b) The proportion of old age persons increased.
8. Mention the salient demographic indicators of China, Pakistan and India.
Ans : Demographic indicators in 2005
|Population ( in crores )||110.5||16.2||130.8|
|Sex Ratio (2001)||933||922||937|
|Literacy Rate (2001)||65%||42%||83%|
|Life Expectancy (in years)||63||63||72|
9. Compare and contrast the development of India, China and Pakistan with respect to some salient human development indicators.
Ans : On the basis of human development indicators the rank of China is 81. It is 128 in case of India and 136 in case of Pakistan.
Adult literacy is highest, i.e. 91% in China in the world. Due to these reasons the economic growth rate of China is also higher (about 10%) in comparison to India (9%) and Pakistan (8.7%).
10. Mention the various indicators of human development.
Ans : The various indicators of human development are :
(a) Human Development Index (Value)
(b) Life expectancy at birth (years)
(c) Adult literacy rate
(d) GDP per capita (PPP)
(e) People below poverty line
(f) Infant mortality rate.
12. Evaluate the various factors that lead to the rapid growth in economic development in China.
Ans : The various factors that lead to the rapid growth in economic development in China are :
(a) Rapid Industrialization
(c) Structural Changes.
(d) No interference at international level.
(e) Decentralised administrators
(f) Improvement of small scale industries.
13. Group the following features pertaining to the economies of India. China and Pakistan under three heads.
One-child norm, Low fertility rate, High degree of urbanisation, Mixed economy, Very high fertility rate, Large population, High density of population, Growth due to manufacturing sector, Growth due to service sector.
|1. Mixed Economy||1. Very High fertility rate||1. One child norm|
2. High density of population
|2. Growth due to service sector||2. Low fertility rate.|
|3. High degree of urbanization|
|4. Large population|
|5. Growth due to|
14. Give reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan.
Ans : The reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan are :
(a) High rate of inflation
(b) More dependence on agriculture
(c) Rapid privatisation
(d) Burden of interest on foreign debt
(e) Destructive earthquake of 2005.
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