Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development

Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters HS 2nd Year Economics Notes, AHSEC Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development, Class 12 Economics Question Answer In English Notes and select needs one.

Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development

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Also, you can read the NCERT book Notes Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of AHSEC All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here in Class 12 Economics Chapter 15 Environment and Sustainable Development.

Environment and Sustainable Development

Chapter: 15



1. What are the main types of environment problems?

Ans : (i) Pollution (ii) Degradation of resources

2. Define cultural environment.

Ans : Construction of house, bridges, roads, dams, factories etc. On land is called cultural environment.

3. Define environment pollution.

Ans : It means the presence of any environmental pollutant in the environment. In fact due to the urbanization natural resources are used excessively. It creates natural imbalance. As a result, the problem of environmental pollution arises.

4. What are different forms of pollution?

Ans : (a) Air pollution, (b) Water pollution, (c) Noise pollution.

5. Define Air Pollution.

Ans : It means the excessive presence of certain gases and suspended particulates material (SPM)

6. Define Water Pollution.

Ans : Contamination of poisonous chemical, foul gases and infectious material into water is known water pollution.

7. Define Noise Pollution.

Ans : It is the cause of excessive noise by factories, vehicles and loud speakers.

8. What are the main diseases caused by water pollution?

Ans : Jaundice, Diarrhoea, Trachoma, Hepatitis etc.

9. What are the main diseases caused by air pollution?

Ans : Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Athman etc.

10. Name two legal measures taken by Govt. of India to control pollution.

Ans : (a) The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974.

(b) The air-Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1981.

11. Define degradation of resources.

Ans : It means a fall in the yield of land – agricultural land and forest wealth.

12. What is meant by deforestation?

Ans : It means reduction in geographical area under forest.

13. What are the adverse effects of excessive use of limited resources?

Ans : (a) Scarcity of natural resources (b) Pressure on environment.

14. What are the two major environmental issues that the world are facing today?

Ans : (a) Environmental Degradation (b) Environmental Pollution


1. Is environmental crisis a recent phenomenon? If so, why?

Ans : Due to the urbanization and industrialization natural resources are used excessively. It creates natural imbalance. As a result, the problem of environment crisis arises.

2. What is the effect of economic development on environment?

Ans : Economic development has full pressure on environment also. It pollutes atmosphere, environment and water bodies with garbage, smoke, sewage, chemical waste, and other poisonous gases etc. In fact higher is the economic develop higher will be the pollution.

3. Discuss the effect of economic development on natural resources.

Ans : Economic development leads to the scarcity of natural resources. The present production technology makes use of renewable and non-renewable natural resources to such an extent that their regeneration becomes difficult. In this way natural resources tend to reduce.

4. Write the favourable effects of sustainable development?

Ans : (a) Protection from pollution

(b) Benefit of the present generation, i.e. standard of living of the present generation increases.

(c) No loss to the future generation.

(d) Environment protection.

5. What are the obstacles of sustainable development?

Ans : (a) Wasteful consumption : There is excessive wasteful consumption in developed countries.

(b) Growing Population : Large population is an obstacle in the way of sustainable development in developing countries.

6. What is meant by environment.

Ans : It means natural surrounding around us involving land, water, air, plants and animals etc. Thus, two types of elements are included in environment – (a) physical and (b) Biology

7. What happen when the rate of resource extraction exceeds that of their regeneration?

Ans : It leads to environment crisis.

8. Classify the following into renewable and non-renewable resources.

(i) Tree (ii) Fish (iii) Petroleum

(iv) Coal (v) Iron-ore (vi) Water

Ans : Renewable resources : (i) Tree (ii) Fish (iii) Water

Non-renewable resources : (i) Petroleum (ii) Coal (iii) Iron-ore

9. Two major environment issues facing the world today are – and –

Ans : Environmental Degradation, Environmental Pollution.

10. What are the functions if the environment?

Ans : (a) It supplies resources – renewable and non-renewable.

(b) It assimilates waste.

(c) It sustain life by providing genetic and biodiversity.

(d) It provide aesthetic services like scenery etc.

11. Explain how the opportunity costs of negative environmental impact are high?

Ans : Govt. has to spend huge amounts on technology and resources to explore new resource. It leads to health degradation. As a result the expenditure on health also increases. Ain this way opportunity costs of negative environment impact are right.

12. Explain the supply demand reversal of environmental resources.

Ans : The demand for environmental resources are increasing continuously. But their supply is limited. It means demand is more than supply. It is called the supply demand reversal of environment resources.

13. Identify six factors contribution to land degradation in India.

Ans : (a) Soil erosion (b) Salinity and Alkalinity (c) Shifting cultivation (d) Loss of vegetation (e) Improper crop rotation (f) No proper use of fertilizers and pets.

14. Outline the steps involved in attaining sustainable development in India.

Ans : (a) Balance between present and future generation.

(b) Optimum use of resources.

(c) No increase in pollution 

(d) Decrease in poverty by providing lasting and secure livelihoods.

(e) Minimisation of cultural destruction and social instability.

15. What is sustainable development?

Ans : It meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. It was introduced in 1987 by World Commission on Environment and Development of the United Nations.

16. Keeping in view your locality, describe any four strategies of sustainable development.

Ans : (a) No degradation of resources.

(b) Check on pollution

(c) Integrated policy between economic development and environment.

(d) Establishment of industries as per environment norms.

17. Write the good effects of environment.

Ans : (a) Increase in human welfare, especially good health.

(b) Increase in productivity, increase in fertility of soil, etc.

(c) Higher economic growth rate.

(d) Future development potential.

18. Write the bad effects of environment.

Ans : (a) Tendency of urbanisation

(b) Increase in poverty rate.

(c) Rapid development of industries put adverse effect.

(d) Lack of civic sense.

19. Give some measures to solve environmental pollution.

Ans : (a) Less utilization of harmful goods.

(b) Population must be controlled.

(c) More trees must be planted to maintain ecological balance.

(d) Systematic and planned urban growth.

(e) Sources of water must be cleaned before supplying it to the public.

(f) Legal actions must be taken in case of old vehicles used, polluting industries etc.

20. What are the causes of deforestation in India?

Ans : (a) Construction of buildings due to the growing population.

(b) Increase in population resulting in more demand for fuel wood and timber.

(c) Use of overgrazing and enrichments.

(d) Indiscriminating sites of development projects.

(e) Diversion of forest for non-forestry purposes.

21. Write the causes of land degradation.

Ans : (a) Soil erosion

(b) Salinity and Alkalinity

(c) Shifting cultivation.

(d) Poor conditions of land use practices.

22. What are the main features of sustainable development?

Ans : (a) Balance between present and future needs.

(b) Emphasis on equal distribution.

(c) Optimum use of resources.

(d) No increase in pollution.

(e) No limit for development.

23. Distinguish between Economic Development and Sustainable Development.

Ans : Economic development is related to the problems of under-developed economies. But, sustainable development is related to the problems of both developed and under-developed economies.

In economic development, natural resources are exploited. But in sustainable development, natural resources are rationally utilized to give benefit to the future generation.

In economic development, there is a long term increase in per capita income and economic welfare. But in sustainable development, attention is paid to maintain real per capita income, economic welfare and economic welfare of the future generations.

24. What do you mean by environmental degradation? Suggest some measures to solve the problems of environmental degradation.

Ans : India has abundant natural resources in terms of rich quality of soil, hundreds of rivers and tributaries, lust green forests, plenty of mineral deposits beneath the land surface, vast stretch of the Indian Ocean, ranges of mountains etc. The black soil of the Deccan Plateau is particularly suitable for cultivation of cotton, leading to concentration of textile industries in this region. The Indo-Gangetic Plains-spread from the Arabian sea to the Bay of Bengal-are one of tire most fertile intensively cultivated and densely populated regions in the world. India’s forests, though unevenly distributed provide green cover for a majority of its population and natural cover for its wildlife. Large deposits of iron-ore, coal and natural gas are found in the country. India alone accounts for nearly 20% of the world’s total iron-ore reserves, bauxite, copper, chromate, diamonds, gold, lead, lignite, manganese, zinc, uranium etc. are also available in different parts of the country. However, the developmental activities in India have resulted in pressure on its finite natural resources, besides creating impacts on human health and well being.

Environmental crisis is a recent phenomenon. In early days, when civilisation just began, before the phenomenal increase in population and growth of industrialisation, the demand for environmental resources was within the carrying capacity of the environment and so the pollution was also within the absorptive capacity of the environment. Therefore, environmental problems did not arise. But with the advent of industrialisation and out break of population, environmental problems arisen and the resources for both production and consumption proved to be beyond the rate of regeneration of the resources and the absorptive capacity of the environment.

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