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Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Executive
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Chapter – 4
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – A
Q.1. A parliamentary executive means.
(a) Executive where there is a parliament.
(b) Executive elected by the parliament.
(c) Where the parliament functions as the executive.
(d) Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament.
Ans : (d) Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament.
Q.2. Match the following:
|(i) Works within the particular state in which recruited state.||(a) Indian Foreign service.|
|(ii) Works in any central government office located either at the national Capital or elsewhere in the country.||(b) State civil service.|
|(iii) Works in a particular state to which allotted: can also be sent an deputation to the centre.||(c) All India Service.|
|(iv) Works in Indian mission abroad.||(d) Central service.|
|(i) Works within the particular state in which recruited state.||(b) State civil service.|
|(ii) Works in any central government office located either at the national Capital or elsewhere in the country.||(c) All India Service.|
|(iii) Works in a particular state to which allotted: can also be sent an deputation to the centre.||(d) Central service.|
|(iv) Works in Indian mission abroad.||(a) Indian Foreign service.|
Q.3. Identify the ministry which may have released the following news items. would this be a ministry of the central Government or the state Government? Why?
(a) An official release said that in 2004-2005 The Tamil Nadu Text books corporation would release new versions for standards VII, X and XI.
(b) A new railway loop line by passing the crowded Thiruvallur Chennai section to help iron ore exporters. The new line, like to be about 80km long will branch off at puttur and then reach Athipattu near the port.
(c) The three members sub-divisional committee formed
to verify suicide by formers in Ramajan pet mandal has found that the two farmers who committed suicide this month have had economic problems due to failure of crops.
Ans : This news items might have been released by education ministry. This ministry would be a ministry of state government.
Because this news is concerned with the subject of state lists, it is the state government who can execute on such types of news items.
(b) On this news items the Railway Ministry may have released and it is the subject of the central Government.
(c) On this issue the Agricultural Ministry of State Government may have released the news.
Q.4. While appointing the prime Minister, the president selects.
(a) Leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabha.
(b) Leader of the largest party in the alliance which secures a majority in the Lok Sabha.
(c) The leader of the largest party in the Rajya Sabha.
(d) Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha.
Ans : (d) Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha.
Q.5. Read this discussion and say which of these statements applies most to India.
Ans : Alok :- Prime Minister is like a king, decides everything in our country.
Shekhar :- Prime Minister is only “first among equals,” he does not have any special powers. All ministers and the Prime Minister have similar powers.
Bobby :- Prime Minister has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. But after all, the Prime Minister has a greater say in policy making and in choosing the ministers
Ans : The third i.e. Babby,’s statement, applies most to Indian political system. Prime Minister plays major role in policy-making and formation government and also selecting the minister.
Long Types Questions & Answers
Q.6. Why do you think is the advice of the council of Ministers binding on the president? Give your answer in not more than 100 words.
Ans : We think that advice of the council of ministers binding on the president. Because the president of India is the nominal and constitutional head of the executive. Article 74(i) clearly states: “There shall be a council of Ministers with prime Minister at its head, to aid and advice the president who shall in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice”.
The latter part of which makes it binding for the president to accept the advice of the council of Ministers, was initially not part of the article 74. it was added to it by the 42nd Amendment to the constitution. However, after the 44th Amendment, the President can ask the council of minister to reconsider the advice tendered to him, but the president has to accept the reconsider advice.
Q.7. Read this dialogue. Which argument do you agree with? Why?
Ans : Looking at the constitutional provisions, it seems that president is only a rubber stamp.
Shama :- The president appoints the prime minister. So he must have the power to remove the prime minister as well.
Regish :- We don’t need a president. After the election, the parliament can meet and elect a leader to be prime minister.
In the first argument the president is only a rubber stamp. But it is not true. In the third argument also it is discussed that there is no need of the president. After the elections, the parliament can meet and elect a person to be the Prime Minister. This position also not practicable. There are the instance when no clear majority exist and the president has to use his discretion. The office of the president of India is the office of respect and nominal supremacy. He is not the rubber stamp. He can use his discretionary powers at the time of emergency and at the time of appointment of Prime Minister if in the Lok Sabha, no single party has a clear majority.
The council of ministers with the Prime Minister as its head is answerable to the people through the Lok Sabha. As soon as the council losses the confidence of the lower house, it talks so there is no need for the President to dismiss the Prime Minister.
Q.8. The parliamentary system of executive vests many powers in the Legislature for controlling the executive why, do you think, is it so necessary to control the executive?
Ans : In a parliamentary system, the Prime Minister is the head of government. Most parliamentary system have a president or monarch who is the nominal head of the government. In India we have the parliamentary system where the prime minister is the head of the government and executive is responsible to the parliament. The executive hold power until it enjoyed the confidence of the parliament.
The parliament controls the purses Tring of the executive. To ensure that government would be sensitive the public expectations and responsible and accountable to their needs and aspirations, it is important that body elected by the people i.e.the legislature controls it.
Q.9. It is said that there is too much political interference in the working of the administrative machinery. It is suggested that there should be more and more autonomous agencies which do not have to answer to the ministers.
(a) Do you think this will make administration more people friendly?
(b) Do you think this will make administration more efficient
(c) Does democracy mean full control of elected representatives over the administration.
Ans : (a) There is a much political interference in the working of the administrative machinery. It is suggested that there should be more and more autonomous agencies which have no responsibility to the ministers. We think this will not make administration more friendly to the people. Because in a democracy, the elected representatives and the ministers are in charge of government.
As they are the representatives of the people and the administration is under their control and supervision and hence the administrative officers can’t act in violation of the policies adopted by the legislature. At the same time, the bureaucracy is also expected to be politically neutral. It is the responsibility of the administrative machinery to faithfully and efficiently participate in drafting the policy and implementing them.
(b) If there world be autonomous agencies, it will make administration more efficient.
(c) In democracy, the elected representatives have the right to make the policies but the administration has to implement those policies efficiently and more efficiently. So democracy does not mean that full control of elected representatives over administration.
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.10. Write an essay of two hundred words on the proposal to have an elected administration instead of a appointed administration.
Ans : What would happen if there would be the procedure to have an elected administration instead of an appointed administration?It would be harmful. The elected administrators would change the policies. And there would be instability to implement different policies. The appointed administration is non- partisan. The civil servants are selected impartially on the basis of merit.
Thus the welfare policies of the government can be effectively handled. Policies would be implemented without any political interference. The elected administration would have lack of technical knowledge of their departments while members of administration have full knowledge of their departments. Hence they are more successful to implement the policies effectively and efficiently. They will be able to implement and perform the developmental functions. They will be also able to perform the functions of planning and social welfare.
Q.11. Discuss the method of election of the president of India.
Ans : The constitution provides on indirect election of the President.He is elected by an electoral college which consists of.
(a) The elected members of the both the houses of the parliament and.
(b) The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies for the states. Articles 54 and 55 deal with the method of election of the president where mention that he is elected by the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote system and secret ballot.
There shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of different states. For securing objective, the constitution provides that value of vote of an MLA of a state shall be in proportion to the population of that state. In order to determine this the following formula has to be used.
Value of vote of an MLA of state:
Total population of the state
Total number of elected MLA of the state legislative assembly
There shall be parity in the values of votes of all MPs and the MLAs. For securing parity between the states and the union, it has been laid down that total value of votes of all the elected MPs shall be equal to the total value of votes of al the MLAs. This is determined by dividing the total value votes of all MLAs, as determined in accordance with the above stated formula, by the total number of elected MPs.
Value of vote fo each elected to Mp
Total value of votes of the elected MLAs of the state legislative assembly
Total number of elected MPS
In addition there is a system of single votes system along with the system of indication of performance. In a presidential election each voter, an elected MP or an elected MLA, casts only one vote. The value of vote of an MP is uniformity the same while the value of vote of an MLA differs from state to state. Each voter, while casting his vote also indicates his preference, I, II, III, IV, V and so on. His vote goes to the candidate also gets the required winning quota of votes, his vote is transferred to the candidate to whom he has given his second preference vote.
Q.12. Discuss the powers and functions of the president of India.
Ans : The president of India is the Head of state and Chief Executive Article 53 vests all the executive powers of the union in the president and also makes him the supreme commander of the defence forces of the union. His powers and functions are can be discussed under several heads
(A) Executive powers: His executive powers and functions can be discussed as under
(1) Administrative powers :- The President is the head of executive and of the administration. All executive powers have been vested in him (Art 53). Article 77 states that all executive actions of the government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the president.
(2) Appointment making powers :- All major appointment are made by the president. He appoints the prime Minister and on his advice other ministers of the union Government, the Chief Justice of India, Judges of the supreme court and High Court of states, Governors of the states, Lt. Governors and Chief commissioners of the union Territories etc.
(3) Role in Foreign Relations :- As the Head of the state, the president accredits India’s Ambassadors and envoys to foreign countries and receives the foreign ambassadors in India. All dislocation activity takes place in his name. All international treaties and agreements, multilateral as well as bilateral are negotiated by the Government of India in the name of the president Establishment of diplomatic relations with new states are done in his name.
(4) Functions as supreme commander of the Armed of the Armed Forces :- Article 53 declares that president is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India. He makes all higher appointments and promotions in in respect of the defence forces.
(5) powers regarding the administration of union Territories and scheduled and Tribal Areas :- The administration of the union Territories is under the President Art 243 of the constitution empower the president to administer union Territories through the Government or Chief commissioners or any other authority to be appointed by him.
(B) Legislative powers :- The following can be described as the legislative powers of the president
(1) The president has the power to summon and prorogue the sessions of the parliament or either of its two houses.
(2) The president can dissolve that Lok Sabha before the expiry of its full term of five years.
(3) In case of an unresolved deadlock is respect of any bill/issue between the two houses of parliament, the president can summon a joint sitting of the two houses.
(4) The president can address either or both the houses of the parliament at any time.
(5) The president can nominate two members from the Anglo-India community to the Lok Sabha.
(6) The president nominates from the fields of Arts, Science, Literature and Social service, 12 members to the Rajya Sabha.
(C) Discretionary Powers :- In two cases the president can depend upon his own discretion.
(1) When no party gets a majority in the Lok Sabha and
no coalition or majority supported candidate is available for appointment as prime minister, the president can exercise his discretion and play a real role in the appointment of prime minister.
(2) The second area in which the president can use his discretion in the dissolution of the Lok Sabha [Art 85].
(D) Financial powers :- The president has some financial powers:
(1) No money bill can be introduced in the parliament without the prior consent of the president.
(2) The president cause to be laid before the parliament the Annual Financial statement Budget showing an estimate of revenue and expenditure of the union for the coming financial year.
(3) The president controls the contingency Fund of India.
(4) From time to time, he appoints a finance commission which makes recommendations for the distribution of revenues between the union and the states.
Q.13. Emergency powers: The part X VIII of the constitution contains emergency provisions and it gives to the president certain powers to deal with certain emergencies. Three kids of emergencies stand listed.
Ans : (1) National emergency under Art 352 i.e. emergency caused by was or external aggression or internal or armed rebellion
(2) Constitutional emergency in a state or states under Art 356 i.e. emergency, arising out of failure of constitutional machinery in a state and
(3) Financial Emergency under Art 360 i.e. emergency arising out of financial crisis in the country.
Thus, the president of India is a constitutional head of the state. He plays an important and active role in the working of the Indian parliamentary democracy. The president plays such a role, without asserting his executive powers. He depends upon his personal qualities, representative character and the sovereign status as an important and objective head of the state.
Q.14. Discuss the powers and functions of the Prime Minister of India.
Ans : Powers and Functions :-
(a) Prime Minister and the Cabinet : The Prime Minister is the maker of the Cabinet. The Cabinet has no existence without the Prime Minister. He can make or unmake a Cabinet.
The Cabinet performs all its functions under the control & guidance of the Prime Minister, therefore he is called the keystone of the Cabinet arch.
(i) Formation of the Council of Ministers :- His first duty after assuming office in the formation of the Council of Ministers. He prepares a list of ministers according to his sweet will. He has a free hand in the selection of ministers.
(ii) Distribution of Portfolios :- The Prime Minister distributes work among the ministers. He decides what dept. is to be allotted to a particular minister. He controls the working of the departments of his ministers. If the Prime Minister is not satisfied with the working of a department, he can change the department of that minister. He distributes particular departments to ministers in such a way that they can run the departments quite efficiently.
(iii) Removal of the Ministers :- The ministers remain in office during (!! the pleasure of the Prime Minister. If the Prime Minister is not satisfied with the working of a minister or the minister does not run the department in accordance with the wishes of the Prime Minister, he can ask him to quit the office & can appoint someone else in his place.
(iv) Leadership of the Cabinet :- The Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet. The Cabinet functions under the control of the Prime Minister. He can call the meetings of Cabinet whenever he likes. The Prime Minister prepares the agenda for the meeting as well as controls it. He presides over the Cabinet meetings. All the decisions in Cabinet meeting are taken according to the wishes of the Council of Ministers.
(v) Link between the President & the Cabinet :- The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Cabinet. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to convey the decisions of the Cabinet to the President. No minister can discuss a particular problem with the President without the permission of the Prime Minister. The President can demand information from the Prime Minister regarding the working of administration.
(a) Leadership of the Cabinet :- The Prime Minister leads the Cabinet in the Parliament. The ministers answer the question but to them by the members of the Parliament. The Prime Minister explains the policy decision of the Cabinet to the Parliament. All important statements on behalf of the Cabinet are made by the Prime Minister in the Parliament.
(b) Sole advice of the President :- The Prime Minister is the chief adviser of the President. The President seeks the advice of the Prime Minister in all matters of the state. The Prime Minister informs the President regarding all the decisions taken by the Cabinet.
(c) Leader of the House :- The Prime-Minister is the leader of the House. Out of the two Houses the position of the Lok Sabha is of great importance & the Prime Minister is the leader of the Lok Sabha. The Parliament always depends upon the policy & guidance of the Prime Minister for facing any problem. All the important decisions in the Parliament are taken according to the wishes of the Parliament.
(d) Leader of the Nation :- The Prime Minister is also the leader of the nation. The President is the head of the state & the Prime Minister is the head of Government. A general election means that election of the Prime Minister.
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