Class 11 Political Science Chapter 16 Citizenship The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 11 Political Science Chapter 16 Citizenship and select need one.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 16 Citizenship
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Chapter – 16
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – B
Q.1. How can we say that lack of education or illiteracy is a big Obstacle to any kind of Progress?
Ans : Lack of education also leads to perpetuation of bad customs and superstitions. Many people still believe in early marriage and dowry, even though many have lost their young daughters to bride burning. In an age aten girls are even going into space each attitude are really a big obstacle 2 our progress.
Q.2. Who is a citizen?
Ans : Citizen is a person who is member of a state, enjoys civil and political right owes allegiance to that state and participate in the governing of the country
Q.3. What do you mean by democracy?
Ans : Abraham Lincoln the former president of united states, defined democracy as “a government of the People, by the people and for the people”.
Q.4. What are the two laws dealing with citizenship in India?
Ans : One is the constitution of India and the other is the citizenship Act of 1955. The constitution tells us who can be called a citizen of India while the latter deals with acquisition and loss of citizenship.
Q.5.Who is a Alien?
Ans : Alien is a person who temporarily lives in a country other than his own and does not enjoy political rights like the citizen of that country do
Q.6. What do you mean by natural born citizen?
Ans : A natural born citizen is one who is either bom in a country /her parents are citizen of that country.
Q.7. What do you mean by naturalization?
Ans : The process of acquiring citizenship is called naturalization.
Q.8. (i) Distinguish between
(a) Citizen ad Alien
Ans : Citizen :-
(a) A citizen owes allegiance to his country.
(b) An alien does not owe allegiance.
(c) A citizen has political and fundamental rights
(d) An alien does not have any right to participate in government process.
(e) At the time of war a citizen can be compelled by the government military service.
(f) An alien under any situation cannot be compelled to join military service.
Q.9. How did the people of Goa acquire Indian citizenship?
Ans : When Goa was liberated from Portugal in 1961, and became a part of India, all the Person living in Goa became Indian citizen when territory became a part of a country, then all the people of that country acquire citizenship of that country automatically.
Q.10. What are the different ways for acquiring citizenship’?
Ans : (a) Marriage :- A foreign woman may marry an Indian man and can then acquire Indian citizenship. In Japan the citizenship laws are entirely different. If a Japanese women marries an Indian or any other nationalism , that man can acquire Japanese citizenship.
(b) Appointment as Government official :- If a foreigner is appointed to a government office then he/she can acquire citizenship of the country where she/he has become government servant.
(c) Purchase of Immovable Property :- In some countries. If a person is allowed to buy Immovable property, for example land or house, then he/she can acquire citizenship too.
(d) By Acquisition of Territory :- If a territory becomes part of another country, then all the people of that territory acquire citizenship of the country. For example in 1961, when Goa was liberated from Portugal and became a part of India, all the people living in Goa become Indian citizens.
Q.11. How can a citizen lose his/her Citizenship?
Ans : A person may loss his/her citizenship in the following ways.
Marriage :- It is the most common reasons for loss of citizenship Indian woman marries a foreigner . She can surrender her Indian xership and acquire the citizenship of her husband’s country.
Residence :- A person may decide to settle down in another country wheshe may therefore give up or loose the citizenship of his/her original state.
(c) Appointment as a Government official :- When persons enter eservice of a foreign governments they can lose their original citizenship.
(d) Service in defence force :- The defence forces are sensitive organs is country. If persons take up service of foreign defence forces they can lose his original citizenship.
Q.11. What are the different qualities that make a good citizen? Explain Giving at least two examples?
Ans : Qualities that make a good citizen :
(i) You are a good citizen if you have cast your vote wisely, keeping the Interests of the country in mind.
(íi) A Good citizen mast be conscious of his duties.
(iii) A Good citizen must pay their taxes honestly regularly and contribute to the states funds.
(iv) A Good citizen obeys the laws of the state and respects the rights of his/her fellow citizen.
(v) Besides high character, a good citizen should also be disciplined.
Example :- Persons should be able to control their emotions and think of consequences before they act.
Good citizen must help the state to function smoothly. In order to do all this, citizen should process a high moral character
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.13. Explain the role of a citizen in a democracy.
Ans : Democracy means, government of the people, by the people and for the people. Hence it is the duty of every citizen to take active part in democracy and make it successful. In democracy every body have political rights. In democracy the citizenship have the right to express himself herself. The people not only enjoy rights but perform certain duties. He has duties towards his nation, other citizen, his family, etc. to maintain the democracy the citizen must be conscious. To strengthen the democracy citizens most have clear idea about his own rights and others rights,
Q.14. What is citizenship at the commencement of the constitution?
Ans : At the commencement of the constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and
(a) Who born in the territory of India, or
(b) Either of whose parents was born in the territory of India, or
(c) Who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less then five years immediately preceding such commencement ! shall be citizen of India.
Q.15. Give three examples through which he/she may lose original citizenship.
Ans : (i) Absence :- If a person stays out side the country for a long time then he/she may lose the citizenship. The number of years specified for absence varies from one country to another.
(ii) Criminal Acts :- The citizenship may be taken away from a citizen. If they commits a serious crime, prove disloyal to the country or have acquired citizenship by fraud.
(iii) Naturalisation :- When a person applies for grant of citizenship of another country. This process is called naturalization. The person has to voluntarily withdraw from the citizenship of his/her native state.
Q.16. What are the qualities of a good citizen?
Ans : Qualities of a good citizen :
(i) You are a good citizen if you have cast your vote wisely keeping the interests of the country in mind.
(ii) The right to vote is also a sacred duty of every citizen but a good citizen is one who exercises the right to vote honestly, one should not be influenced by narrow loyalties of caste religion or region
(iii) Beside voting a good citizen must be conscious of his duties.
(iv) We must all remember that the state spend large amounts of welfare activities for its citizens like hospitals, educational institutions, housing public transportation. So, it is the duty of every citizen to protect and maintain the public property.
(v) Good citizens must pay their taxes honestly and regularly and contribute to the state’s fund only then discharge its responsibilities effectively.
(vi) A part from his a good citizen obeys the laws of the state and respects the rights of his/her fellow citizens. Good citizens mus! help the state to function smoothly.
(vii) In order to do all this a citizen should possess a high moral character. A person who breaks laws or is anti social cannot be a good citizen.
Q.17. Describe the composition, powers and functions of the High Court.
Ans : In every High Court, there is a Chief Justice and many other judges President of India.
Appointment of the Judges :- The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of the Supreme surt and the Governor of the State. The other judges are appointed by will of President, Governor and the Chief Justice of High Court
Qualifications for the Judges :
(a) He should be a citizen of India.
(b) He should have been an advocate in one or more High Courts in edia or a judge for at least 10 years in subordinate courts in India. enure: Originally the age of the retirement of the judges of the High Courts was fixed at 60 but it was raised to 62 in 1963 according to the amendment of the Constitution.
Removal of the Judges :- A judge may leave his office by resigning. He will end his letter of resignation to the President. His office would be considered b have been vacated if he is appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court ris transferred to some other High Court. A judge of a High Court may liso be removed like a judge of the Supreme Court. A judge of High Court may be removed by the President if the Parliament passes a motion against him by an absolute majority and 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting, both the Houses sitting separately
Salary :- The pay of the Chief Justice of a High Court is rupees 90,000/per month and that of the other judges is rupees 85.000/- per month.
Powers and Functions :
Original Jurisdiction :- The original jurisdiction of the High Court is restricted.
(a) Every High Court under Article 226 is empowered to issue writs, orders, directions including writs in the nature of Habeas Core Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo warranto and Certiorari or any of the any person or authority with in its territory for the enforcement Fundamental Rights and for any other purpose.
(b) The original jurisdiction of High Court extends to mattery, admiralty, matrimonial, contempt of court and cases ordered to transferred to High Court by lower court.
(c) The High Courts of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennar have origi jurisdiction on hearing straightway cases involving the Christiansand Par
Appellate Jurisdiction :
The appellate jurisdiction of the High Courts extends so:
(a) The High Court can hear appeals in civil cases the amount involve in the case is at least Rs 5000.
(b) The High Court in criminal cases hears the appear in which sh accused has been sentenced to four years imprisonment by the Session Judge
(c) The death sentence awarded by Sessions Judge is subject to approval by the High Court
Power of Judicial Review :- The States High Courts like the Supremo Court has the power of Judicial Review A High Court has the power strike down any law of the State or any order of the executive if it viola any provision of the constitution or curtails or takes any of the Fundamental Rights of the people.
Administrative and Supervisory Power :- The State High Coun performs many administrative functions within its Territorial Jurisdiction It exercises the power of superintendence and control over all courts a tribunals throughout the territory except the military tribunals.
Q.18. Write a note on means of safeguarding citizen’s rights.
Ans : Relation between Rights and Duties :
1. Rights and Duties always go together :- Rights and duties are closed related and cannot be separated from one another. Both go side by side These are the two sides of the same coin. If the state gives the right to life to a citizen, it also imposes an obligation on him to not to expose his life to dangers, as well as to respect the life of others. If I have a right to work and earn, it is also my duty to recognize the same right of others.
2. Right of One is the Duty of Others :- Rights can be enjoyed only in the world of duties. For every right there is corresponding duty. When the ne fail to discharge their duties properly, the rights all become meaningless. “I can enjoy my rights only if the others allow me to do the gere. I have” the right to life and it is the duty of others to respect my life not to cause any harm to me.”
3. Rights of a Citizen also implies Duties for him :- Rights are not the monopoly of a single individual. Everybody gets these equally. This means that “others also have the same rights which I have, and it is my duty to that others also enjoy their rights.” Laski has rightly said that one o’s right is also his duty. It is my duty to respect the rights of others as ved as the duty to use my rights in the interest of society.
4. Rights are to be used for Social Good :- Rights originate in society therefore, while enjoying rights, we must always try to promote social rest. It is the duty of every one of us to use our rights for promoting he welfare of the society as a whole.
5. Duty towards the State :- Since state protects and enforces rights, it so becomes the duty of all citizens to be loyal to the state. It is their duty obey the laws of the state and to pay taxes honestly. Citizens should always be ready to defend the state. Thus a citizen has both Rights and Duties. He enjoys rights and performs his duties. Rights and Duties are the two sides of the same coin.
Q.19. Discuss about global citizenship.
Ans : Global citizenship is the rights, responsibilities and duties that come ith being a member of the global entity as a citizen of a particular nation s place. The idea is that one’s identity transcends geography or political orders and that responsibilities or rights are or can be derived from membership in a broader class: “humanity”. This does not mean that such person denounces or waives their nationality or other, more local identities, put such identities are given “second place” to their membership in a global community. Extended, the idea leads to questions about the state of global society in the age of globalization. In general usage, the term may have much the same meaning as “world citizen” or cosmopolitan, but it also has traditional, specialized meanings in differing contexts.
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