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Class 11 Political Science Chapter 17 Nationalism
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Chapter – 17
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – B
Q.1. Define the term “Nation”.
Ans : The term “Nation” has been defined in various way. Different writers have defined this term from different point of view.
Definition of Nation.
(i) “A Nation is a population of an ethnic unity inhabiting a territory a geographic unity” -Burgees.
(ii) “A Nation is community of persons living in a definite territory and there by bound together by the bonds of mutual love”- Barker.
(iii) “Nation is the state plus something else the unit of the people organized in one state”-Gilchrist
From the above discussion we can conclude that no single point of view can justiciable define or interpret nation. No point of view is complet : in itself, there is some truth in every point of views. In nutshell we can sa that a nationality is a group of people bound together by certain this ties like religion culture, traditions, conventions and literature, etc in such manner that they have a sense of oneness.
Q.2. Discuss the main differences between the state and Nation?
Ans : The difference between state and Nation are discuss as under-
(i) State has four essential elements but Nation has none : State has four essential attributes-Population, territory, government and sovereignty out of these if there is even the lack of one element the stat can’t come into existence. We don’t need any of the four elements for the making of a nation.
Nation is an organisation organized through cultural un spiritual feeling Nation can come into existence only when the people met conscious of uniting themselves into one group. That one group must have the feeling of oneness and that is possible only it the people have the me language, religion culture, tradition and conventions etc. The elements of a nation may change and they go on changing, but the element of state are permanent and they are always the same.
(ii) Definite territory is essential for the state but not for Nation :- State is a territorial organization and it is only a definite territory, Nation is connected with the feeling of unity and not with any fixed territory. The members of an association or an organization may be limited to small territory and they may also be spread all over the world.
(iii) Sovereignty is essential for the state and not for the Nation :- State has the element of sovereignty and it is essential for the existence of the state. The nation does not have one sovereignty Nation attempts at attaining freedom and when it wins it, it get sovereignty and with it also becomes a state and starts using its sovereignty.
(iv) Ideas of oneness is essential for the Nation but not for state :- only that group of people can be called a nation which has sense of unity, But it is not essential in the case of a state. In case of state, it is essential that the people should be politically organised.
Q.3. What are the factors that helps in the emergence of a Nation?
Ans : The factors which help the emergence of a Nation-
(i) Common Motherland :- Every human being has love for his motherland. One who does not love his motherland is devoid of human heart. People belonging to one place are mutually bound for their love for motherland. The Jews, though remained for away from their motherland, had love for it and it kept nationalism alive.
(ii) Common language :- is also significant factor is the making of a nationality. It is through the language that one can express one’s view to others and can also know the views of there with the help of language people understand and come nearer to each other. Man is a social animal. He wants to express himself to others and wants to listen to others.
(iii) Common Culture :- Common culture is an important element in the formation and development of nationality. Culture means the way of life of a group of people. Culture stands for customs and traditions, idez one another quite well and live in harmony and co-operation it is but natur dress, food, art and literature etc. This way the people start understanding that they will put in the join efforts for improving their lot.
(iv) Common Religion :- Common religion also equally contributes to the nationality. The followers of a religion remained under the command of a religious leader and they performed all their functions according to his orders. This was the spirit of oneness developed among all the followers of religions. They play an important role in the unity and organization of the state.
Q.4. What do you mean the term “State”?
Ans : Many scholars and writers have given the different definitions the state for example-
(i) “State is politically organized people of a definite territory”-Bluntschli
(ii) “State is a territorial society divided into government
and subject claiming within its allotted physical areas supremacy over all other institutions-Laski.
On the basis of different definitions of the state we can say that state isa group of people having sovereignty, living in a fixed territory under the control of an organized government.
Q.5. What is Saptanga theory of State?
Ans : In the modern age there are considered four essential elements of the state. These are fixed territory, population, Government and sovereignty. But in the ancient times kautilya described “Saptanga theun of state” According to this, he mentions seven elements of the star These seven elements are Swami, Amatya, Janapada, Durg, Kosa, Dandi and Mitra. Among these Janapada included both population and territo.
Q.6. What do you mean by the term “Sub-nationalism”?
Ans : In the modern age the stress is given on the theory of “One-nation one state”. But even today there are many states which are multinational. India and Switzerland are such states where there people of many nationalities live together. In India the people speak many languages have different religions, cultures. Before independence they was Muslim b-nationalism in India. Even today also the Muslim the Sikh and the hristian sub-nationalism exists. The feeling of sub-nationalism does not create any hindrance in the way of national integration.
Q.7. Discuss the four elements of the state.
Ans : All the modern writers of political science agree with the fact that the state has four essential elements and it can’t exist if any one of the four is lacking. The four essential elements of the state are :
(i) Population :- Population is the primary element of the state. No state can exist if there are no human beings.
(ii) Fixed Territory :- The second essential elements of the state is territory. Without a fixed territory there can be no state.
(iii) Government :- The Government is the third essential element of the state. It is the government through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and enforced.
(iv) Sovereignty :- The fourth most important element of the state is sovereignty means the supreme power or the ultimate authority of the state.
Q.8. Define nationalism and different to it from internationalism.
Ans : Nationalism :- It is difficult to define the term Nationalism” which can be felt rather then expressed. Being ambiguous it is very difficult to conclude whether nationalism has been achieved or not. We may however, imply say that nationalism is feelings or sentiments for having an independent nation or we may define it as the desire for having separate area for free and independent development of one’s culture”
This spirit of nationalism did not exist in the past till the feudal system came to an end. Upto this stage it was felt that state was monopoly of ne sovereign. The sovereign was given unquestioned support. The king *as worshipped. In fact he was both a prophet and sovereign.
The feudal ords also did not promote the feeling of nationalism as it went against heir interest. It was only with the beginning to Tudor rule in England that nationalism in its true sense came to the fore front and then it spread the ther parts of Europe. In so far as Asian and African continents are concerned these feelings came still later. Nationalism even upon this stage, as in the hands of absolute monarchs who gave very little share to the people in their administration Nationalism in its present form however came to the front and established itself with the dawn of democracy and democratic institutions.
Internationalism :- Internationalism, on the other hand, is a feeling and expression of those sentiments according to which one has love for the whole world without any consideration for the state to which one belong Though this sentiments was surging since quite sometimes past yet ini present from and sense it came to the front only after the close of Firs world war and since then is making rapid progress. It is now becoming a slogan for all the advanced nations of the world.
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.9. Discuss the underlying principle of ‘one nationality, one state’ Or What do you understand by right of self determination? What limitations are desirable to be imposed?
Ans : Right of self-determination implies that every nation in the world should have a right to determine its destiny in all walks of life without an undue interference from any other state. According to J. S. Mill, whos rather considered the first exponent of this right, “Where the sentimentos nationality exist in any force there is prima facie a case for uniting all the members of the nationality under the same Government and the Government to themselves apart.”
He was of the opinion that nationalin should be given a right to determine its own affairs in the way it like President Wilson, in our modern times, asserted this right for each state which has since then been constantly preached and followed by all the nations of the world. The right of self-determination implies that each state has the following rights:
(i) Right to exist :- This is the basic right which implies that each state has a right to exist independently without interference from other states. Sovereignty of the state shall in all respects be respected.
(ii) Right to develop :- According to this each state has a right to develop its own social, political and economic system and should develop its own culture, art and literature. It should have a right to adopt any language as the medium of expression of its ideas and thoughts.
(iii) Right to preserve :- The right to self determination by each state implies that each state can preserve what it considers in wortels preserving. In other words, it case a right that it’s past heritages should neither be disfigured, destroyed or misrepresented. Each tradition has some historical background behind it and that this represents the soul of he nation in one way or the other. These traditions must be preserved right of sell determination, which also includes right to exist right to develop and right to preserve was advocated in the past and is still be advocated due to the following reasons-
(i) That this right is essential and must be given to every individual democracy is to be preserved. In fact it is democracy in action If this right is denied then it shall virtually be end of democracy.
(ii) That this right forges national unity more particularly among the States with different races which otherwise would not have come together had they not been given the right of self-determination.
(iii) Right of self-determination also guarantees that morities shall not be absorbed in the majority and that they shall continue to have right to determine their culture and civilization along with the majority communities.
(iv) It also provides more national security because both the majority and minority have a right to determine their own altairs in the way they like and as such they feel satisfied. In their satisfaction lies national security. But it is felt that right of self-determination has its own disadvantages also, namely:
(a) If this right is applied in multinational states like India and U.SS.R. it will do more harm them good to the community and nation. Each section will try to find its own way and thus smooth administration is bound to get a great setback.
(b) Since each nationality in the state will try to develop its own culture as well as way of life it shall be difficult to ascertain public opinion which is essential in democracy and for its successful working.
(c) It encourages inferior races to come at par with the superior races with the result that the progress of the latter is retarded.
Its influence :- Right of self-determination, as it came to the front had its own influence on world politics. In early 20th century it disintegrated multinational states of Russia as well as Austria and Hungary. It helped in the unification of states like Germany and Italy. It was one of the reasons responsible for the reorganization of map of Europe after the close of First world war States like Czechoslovakia and Finland etc., front only as outcome of this right of self-determination,
The Principle of Self determination is very attractive and appealing. Its essential that each state much have full say in its own affairs. But at the same time approach to the problem should be conscious. It should not be considered as remedy for all evils but only used according to circumstances It is a double edged sward which can be used both for the purpose national integration as well as disintegration
Q.10. Explain the importance of nation building in India.
Ans : The nation provide a system of values and a culture framework to the functioning of state. People living in a particular territory within a nation may also share certain cultural, religious and linguistic feature that are restricted to the region. The feeling is known as sub-nationalism The Indian subcontinent before independence was divided into diverse administrative units. These were brought together with the strong nationalist feelings. India is a nation of different groups. They have a sense of pride in their culture. But it does not disturb the working of the state. Strengthening the faces of integration in a society and emphasizing social solidarity is a major Policy of state.
Q.11. Discuss the merits and demerits of nationalism.
Ans : Merits of Nationalism :
(i) Nationalism makes an individual feels that he is not confined to himself and thus selfless. On the contrary this spirit makes him feel that he is above these minor considerations and is the make sacrifices for the nation to which he belongs.
(ii) It creates a sense for national struggle among those who are being governed by others.
(iii) Nationalism leads to self-sufficiency. Each country feels that it should produce more and more so that on the one hand it should exploit national resources and on the other its hard earned wealth should not go out of motherland.
(iv) Nationalism gives an opportunity to each nation for development of its culture so that other nations of the world might be benefited by that.
(v) Nationalism is a feeling under which each individual feels that he and his nation has right to be independent.
(vi) Nationalism creates healthy rivalries among the nations of the world
Demerits of Nationalism :
(i) Nationalism, in many cases has resulted in the evil of lust for power Many nations have fought wars to capture more and more territories in the name of nationalism and have thus glorified war.
(ii) In many of the countries the authority is misused. In the name of nationalism those in power rush legitimate demand of the workers engaged in production and thus the rich grow richer and the poor poorer. But all this attributed to nationalism
(iii) In nationalism each fact is exaggerated. National achievements are given wide Publicity. A little threat to national security and territorial integrity is given wide Publicity and is posed as major problem. It thus makes a nation feel proud, boastful and unrealistic.
(iv) It is against world order. World order which is considered the ultimate goal for all civilizations can only be possible if the nation give up their attempt at nationalism. World order and world federation can only be possible if the nations of the world to sacrifice something to achieve that end. If nationalism is adhered to its logical conclusions it will make world order only a dream and shall never become a reality.
(v) It can be used against slave nations. If nationalism of those who are slaves demands that they should be liberated, nationalism of those who are in power and authority equally demands that they should not liquidate their empire. In this way, in actual practice, colonialism will never come to an end. In other words nationalism can be used against slave countries by the capitalist countries.
Q.12. Mention four elements of nationalism.
Ans : Expansionist nationalism: “Expansionist nationalism” is a radical Form of imperialism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. It is most closely associated with the likes of Nazism (National-socialism) and American Manifest Destiny and also shares some commonalities with neoconservatism.
Romantic nationalism : (also organic nationalism, identit, shares nationalism) is the form of ethnic nationalism in which the state de political legitimacy as a natural (“organic”) consequence and express of the nation, or race. It reflected the ideals of Romanticism and opposed to Enlightenment rationalism Romantic nationalism emph2522 a historical ethnic culture which meets the Romantic Ideal, folklore developed as a Romantic nationalist concept. The Brothers Grimm inspired by Herder’s writings to create an idealized collection of tale which they labeled as ethnically German Historian Jules Michele exemplifies French romantic-nationalist history.
Cultural nationalism :- Cultural nationalism defines the nation by shapes culture. Membership (the state of being members) in the nation is neither entirely voluntary (you cannot instantly acquire a culture), nor hereditary (children of members may be considered foreigners if they grew up another culture). Yet, a traditional culture can be more easily incorporate into an individual’s life, especially if the individual is allowed to acquire skills at an early stage of his/her own life. Cultural nationalism has bee described as a variety of nationalism that is neither purely civic nor ethnic The nationalisms of Catalonia, Quebec and Flanders have been described
Post colonial nationalism :- Since the process of decolonisation that occurred after World War II, there has been a rise of Third World nationalisms. Third world nationalisms occur in those nations that have been colonized and exploited. The nationalisms of these nations were forged in a furnace that required resistance to colonial domination in order to survive. As such, resistance is part and parcel of such nationalisms and their very existence is a form of resistance to imperialist intrusions. Third World nationalism attempts to ensure that the identities of Third World peoples are authored primarily by themselves, not colonial powers.
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