Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment

Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 1st Year Environmental Studies Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment Question Answer.

Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment Notes for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

12. What are the salient features of the Motor Vehicles Act 1988

Ans: The salient features of the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 are as follows:

(a) From 01.10.89 every motor vehicle shall comply with the following emission standards: 

(i) Idling emission limit for four-wheeler patrol driven vehicles shall not exceed 3 per cent by volume. 

(ii) Idling emission limit for two-wheelers and three-wheelers petrol” driven vehicles shall not exceed 4.5 percent by volume. 

(iii) Some density for diesel driven vehicles shall be 65 HSU.

(b) Every transport vehicle to have a certificate of fitness.

(i) For violation of emission standards, penalty for first offence is Rs. 1,000 and for the subsequent offences is Rs. 2000 each. The offence is non-compoundable and only the court of law will impose penalty.

13. What is acid rain and how is it form? How can you controlid rain?

Ans: When rain water contains acid, it in called acid rain, Rain water dissolved pollutants like oxide of sulphur nitrogen and carbon in the air and brings them down in the form of acid rain. The amount of pollutants determines the power of acid content in rain water. Pollutants remain in atmosphere in gaseous form and they are driven away from place to place. Due to the movement of the pollutants acid rain can occur at different places. Acid rain is called ‘lake killers. This is due to the fact that acid rain is one of the major causes of the death of lakes. Acid rain affects trees and plants and aquatic animals. Acid rain destroys some of the essential nutrients of soil and thus affects productivity of soil. Acid rain has destroyed some forests in Canada, Germany and the USA. 

About 50000 lakes in Canada have died because of acid rain. Acid rain also effects human life. But the amount of effect has not yet been determined. It also affects buildings and other structures. The Taj Mahal has lost its original glaze because of sulphur di oxide emitted by Mathura Oil Refinery. According to studies conducted by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and World Meteorological Organization the effect of acid rain in Indian cities is not yet fearful.Acid rain can be controlled by the following way. 

(i) The use of fuel in dung cars should be economized to control acid rain.

(ii) By using pollution control equipments emission of So2 and No2 from industries and power plants should be reduced.

(iii) To correct the adverse effects and bad effects of acid rain liming of lakes and soils should be done.

14. Write explanatory note on deplication of ozone layer. 

Ans: Ozone layer is a gaseous layer in the atmosphere. It exists about30 to 60 km above the surface of the earth. It is like an umbrella that protects the living beings and plants from the dangerous and harmful Ultra Violet Rays. The ozone layer is there at about 30 to 60 km above the earth’s surface. It is a part of the earth’s atmosphere. It acts like protective umbrella and protects plants and animals from the harmful ultra violet rays of the sun. It acts like a filter and allows the essential rays to pass through it. A British Antarctic Survey team in 1985 detected 40% loss in the ozone layer over the Antarctica. 

After that scientists have found that a synthetic chemical called CFC( cloro. Fluoro Carbon) has damaged the ozone layer. It is used in hair sprays, deodorants, shaving creams and many other cosmetic materials. It is also used in refrigerators. These cosmetic products are used all over the world; chlorine present in CFC mainly damages the ozone layer. Many studies here pointed out that if the use of CFC remains at the present level, ozone layer will be damaged wherever chlorine gets concentrated. When the ozone layer is damaged ultra violate ray will come to earth’s surface in full intensity and severely damage plants and animals. Therefore the ozone layer should be protected with all seriousness.

15. Write on the various process of formation of wasteland.

Ans: Wasteland means the land that suffering from environmental degradation and failing productivity. The sandy area, snow covered area, guilled area, barren land water logged area jhum affected areas are considered as wasteland.

Wasteland are formed by natural process and man made activities. Wasteland are formed by deforestation, overgrazing erroneous agricultural practices, mining etc.

16. Write a note on the effects of application of pesticides in agriculture. 

Ans: Following are the effects of application of pesticides in

(i) Animals and human excreta may contain pathogens that contaminate the soil and crops. These also affect the health of man and animals agriculture.

(ii) Through food chain the radioactive dust may find its way from the soil into crops, animals and human.

(iii) Plants can absorb many pesticides and their degraded products E and nay reach humans and animals through food chain which may prove a very harmful.

(iv) The chemicals and pesticides are used in the field of agriculture field. These chemicals and pesticides can alter the basic composition of the soil.

(v) The quality of soil is spoiled due to the use of inorganic fertilizers in the long run.

(vi) The useful soil organisms which contribute in fertility and structure of the soil may killed through the chemicals and pesticides.

17. Discuss the salient features of the Water prevention and Control of population Act, 1974.

Ans: The Water (prevention and Control of population) Act, 1974:

In Articles 249 and 250 of the constitution has provided the parliament has no power to make laws of the state with respect to any of the matter aforesaid expect.

In pursuance of clause.

(i) of Article 252 of the constitution resolutions have been passed by all Houses of the Legislatures of the Legislatures of the states of Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya pradesh, Rajasthan, Triputa and west Bengal to the effect that matters aforesaid should be regulate in those states by parliament by passing laws

To provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and maintaining an Act is It is essential

The Act is essential for restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment and with a view to carrying out the purpose aforesaid of Boards for the prevention an control of water pollution. For conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and function relating there to and for matters connected there with.

18. Write about the importance of water conservation and its methods.

Ans: Following are the importance of water conservation and its methods:

(a) In water conservation reducing irrigation losses such as use of lined or covered canals, using water in the early morning or at late evening. use of sprinkling and drip method etc. is very helpful.

(b) To conserve water in sandy regions horizontal barrier of asphalt is placed below the soil surface to escape from quick evaporation of water. 

(c) To conserve water in irrigated area some chemical wetting agents are used to increase the water intake of the soil.

(d) Water is conserved by making some boundary of soil barrier which prevent the quick run of rain water in plains pertinently in paddy field. 

(e) Water is allowed to flow to the farming area and in foothills the course of the rebuilds are changed.

(f) To conserve water digging large pond is necessary.

(g) To conserve water the small embankments is hilly-slopes allow rain water to wait more and thus water gets more time to infiltrate. 

(h) To conserve water re-use and economic use of it also helpful.

(i) Person can reduce the misuse and overuse of water in the area, where water is already in shortage and where water shortage is ahead pricing in water supply.

(j) Soil is left farrow far one or two seasons which increase its water conserving capacity.

(k) To conserve water in dry area or in the area under the affect of desertification the creation of new watershed or revival of old watersheds also very helpful.

19. Write how are the forests beneficial to mankind?

Ans: Forest are beneficial to mankind in the following way:

(i) Forests supplies food crops to the man, animals and the different species.

(ii) Forest helps in air purification.

(iii) Forest controls the climates.

(iv) Some industries like match box industry, plywood industry etc are being set up on the basis of forest.

(v) Forest saves the soil erosion increase fertility of soil, increase the water absorbing capacity of soil etc. 

(vi) Forest supplies fuel wds for household use and raw materials for industrial use. 

(vii) It also supplies cane, bamboos etc. that are very essential for building houses.

(viii) Forest can increase the natural beauty which gives pleasure and helps in the development of tourism industry.

(ix) To preserving the scarce animals, birds, various types of trees. forest is very beneficial.

20. Write about the flood as a disaster; its causes and management.

Ans: Flood is considered as a disaster. There are various causes of flood.

These are as follows :

(i) Due to deforestation river flood may occur very heavily.

(ii) One of the main cause of flood s overgrazing.

(iii) Rapid industrialization is one of the main cause of flood.

(iv) Coastal areas are occasionally flooded by unusually high tides induced by severe winds over ocean surfaces.

(v) Floods occur due to heavy rain sometimes combined with meeting snow which causes the rivers which causes the rivers to overflow their blanks

(vi) Floods occur when vegetation and soil cannot absorb all the water.

(vii) Mining is also one of the important causes of flood. 

(viii) Global warming is also considered as causes of flood. Following are the management of flood control:

(i) The construction of embankments on lower beaches of rivers to divert flood water is one of the major methods of flood control.

(ii) One of an important method of flood control is reforestation. 

(iii) Construction of spars which control both flood and bank erosion is one of the most mentionable method of flood control.

(iv) To provide sufficient protection against flood dams help very friendly. River dams is also a method of control. 

(v) By restoring vegetation and institution efficient methods of soil management and conservation flood can be control, 

21. Write on the harmful effect of river dam. 

Ans: There are various harmful effect of river dam. Some of them are as follows: 

(a) Due to river dam tribal peoples who lives near the river are displaced which making them isolated from their native lands and relatives and and some social issues are emerging.

(b) Large dams causes the fall of land fertility through water logging. 

(c) Large dams helps in breeding of vector and spread of vector borne diseases

(d) Large dams creates two-environmental problem like water logging and salinization of farming land. 

(e) Large dams reduces water flow and silt deposition in river.

(f) Through the excess use of irrigation facilities large dams are also responsible for the environmental problems.

(g) Large dams enriches the risk of earthquake and unseasonal flood. (h) Due to river dam deforestation at large rate by submerging a vast area can be caused etc.

22. Write a note on Acid rain and its effect. 

Ans: When rainwater contains acids, it is called acid rain. Due to the presence of pollutants like oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon in the ir, rain water transform them into weak acids and finally comes down to the surface of the earth as acid rain. Amount of acidity depends on the amount of pollutant dissolved. The pollutants are spread over a large area as they are in gaseous state. They are carried by wind and cloud to s great distance. So, acid rains are not confined to the area where the gaseous emissions originate. Acid rains are often called the lake killers’ as these rains are one of the main causes of deaths of lakes. Acid rains kill all aquatic lives including plants and animals in lakes, ponds, rivers etc. 

The productivity of soils is also affected as the acid rain destroys the mineral elements and other nutrients of the soil. Some forests of Canada, Germany and USA are largely damaged due to acid rains. In Canada 50,000 lakes have been affected by acid rains and out of these 50.000 lakes, 140 have been declared dead. Acid rain has its adverse effects on human beings also but the mode of human diseases or deaths’ caused by acid rains is not properly understood as yet. Taj Mahal, the world famous marble monument at Agra, has been affected by the emissions of sulphur dioxide and other gases from Mathura Oil Refinery and it has lost its original glow. As the studies undertaken by BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) and WMO (World Meteorological Organization) indicate, the effect of the acidity in rainwater is not so alarming in Indian cities.

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