Class 11 Environment Chapter 3 Biodiversity and its Conservation

Class 11 Environment Chapter 3 Biodiversity and its Conservation The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 1st Year Environmental Studies Chapter 3 Biodiversity and its Conservation Question Answer.

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Class 11 Environment Chapter 3 Biodiversity and its Conservation

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 11 Environment Chapter 3 Biodiversity and its Conservation Notes for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Biodiversity and its Conservation

UNIT – 3

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Textual Questions and Answers

1. Define the term biodiversity.

Ans: Biodiversity is considered as the degree of variety in nature and not the nature itself. It also means the variety and variability of all animals. plants and micro organism is called biodiversity.

2. Explain with suitable examples – genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.

Ans: Genetic biodiversity: This is the diversity of genes within a species, which are passed down the generations. It is this type of diversity that gives rise to the varieties of species. For example, basmati rice is distance from joha rice. Some variations are easy to see, such as size or colour. Taste or flavour can be perceived by other senses.

Species biodiversity: Species is the unit used to classify the millions of life forms on earth. Each species is distinct form every other species. Horses and donkeys are distance species, as are lions and tigers. What units members of a species is the fact that they are genetically so similar that they can reproduce fertile offspring. Species diversity is usually measured in terms of the total number of species within a defined area.

Ecosystem biodiversity: An ecosystem is a set of life forms (plants, animals microorganisms) interacting with one another and with non-living elements (Soil, air, water minerals etc.) Ecosystem diversity is therefore the diversity of habitats which include the different life forms within. It is also used to refer to the variety of ecosystems found within a biogeographical or political boundary.

3. What are value of biodiversity?

Ans: The earth has an enormous variety of plants and animals, both domesticated and wild, as also a wide array of habitats and ecosystems This diversity meets the food, medicinal, clothing, shelter, spiritual as well as the recreational needs of millions of people around the world. It also ensures that ecological functions such as the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and soil protection are maintained. In fact, biodiversity loss would mean a threat to the survival of the human race itself.

4. What is consumptive value?

Ans: We have noticed that biodiversity products like fuel, food, drugs, fibers etc. have been used by man from time immemorial About 90 percent of the world’s food comes from plant species. Genetic diversity is important in breeding corps and livestock. Crop broeders need a diversity of crop varieties in order to breed new varieties that resist evolving pests und disease. The loss of diversity in crop species has severe implications for global food security. A single pest invasion or disease could wipe out all standing crop or a particular livestock. About 80 per cent of the people in developing countries depend for primary healthcare on traditional medicine, most of which are derived from plants, and some from animal and mineral sources. We get penicillin used as antibiotic form a fungus called penicillium. Similarly we get tetracycline from a bacterium, aspirin from the plant Filipendulaulmaria, and quinine from the bark of cinchona tree. The fuel wood, fossil fuels (like coal, petroleum) natural gas, minerals etc. have been used by all of us.

5. What is productive value?

Ans: These are the commercial products manufactured or prepared from the different resources of biodiversity. Even today a large number of traditional communities depend wholly or partially, on the surrounding natural resources for their daily needs or food, shelter, clothing, household goods, medicines, fertilizers and entertainment. The tusks of elephants, silk from silk worm, wool from sheep, lac from lac insect are obtained from animal diversity. Many industries depend largely on plant materials eg. paper and pulp industry, sugar industry, plywood industry, railway sleeper etc.

6. What are major threats to biodiversity?

Ans: Extinction or elimination of species is a natural process of volution. But in the recent past, the elimination of innumerable species has been talked about in different national and international forums. The changing attitude of human society to the environment in general and biodiversity in particular has reached such a level that the conservation of Biodiversity has become a great challenge.

There have been threats to biodiversity from different angles such as 

(a) Habitat destruction

(b) Overgrazing

(c) Poaching

(d) Natural calamities

(e) Climate change and global warming

(f) Biopiracy

7. What are ex-situ and in-situ conservation of biodiversity? Give examples of each.

Ans: Ex-situ conservation: Ex-situ conservation is the conservation of plants and animals away from their natural habitat. This could be in zoological parks and botanical gardens or through the forestry institutions and agricultural research centres. A lot of effort is under way to collect and preserve the genetic material of crops, animal, bird, and fish species. This work is being done by institutions such as the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal, etc.

In-situ conservation: In-situ conservation is conservation of wild species of flora and fauna in their natural habitat i.e. on site preservation. eg.biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, reserve forests etc. India has long tradition of such conservation. It has continued this through the establishment of a network of protected areas throughout the country. Today India has over 5333 national parks and sanctuaries. These protected areas cover about 4.5 percent of the country territory and have helped in conserving habitats and their biodiversity. Several special projects have also been launched to save certain animal species which have been identified as needing concerted protection efforts. Assam has now 5 national parks and 22 wildlife sanctuaries, Kaziranga National Park and pobitora wildlife sanctuary are involved in the protection of the Asiatic Rhino, Kaziranga is also the home of swamp deer,hog deer and elephants. The biosphere reserve, Manes National Park is the home of the golden langer and the pigmy hog.

8. What is biopiracy?

Ans: Biopiracy is a kind of procurement of biological resources from a country or a place and the subsequent potentisation of their products. The indigenous people of some countries are the treasure house of knowledge and beliefs. Agents of some companies or other middle persons collect their knowledge and valuable living materials and subsequently proceed for potentisation on their own. Thus through unethical means. they acquire rights to marketing these products. A number of such cases) are found to occur in different countries. Biopiracy of certain high valued bioresources has been a major threat to biodiversity.

9. Mention two conservation strategies in our country.

Ans: Two conservation strategies in our country are: 

(i) In-situ conservation: Kaziranga National Park in Assam important for one homed Rhino.

(ii) Ex-situ conservation National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi.

10. In which year the Earth Summit was held? 

Ans: The Earth Summit was held in 1982.

VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTION & ANSWER MARKS:

1. Into how many types can we divide natural resources?

Ans: We can divide natural resources into two types. 

They are:

(i) Exhaustible and

(ii) Inexhaustible resources.

2. Into how many types can we divide exhaustible resources? 

Ans: We can divide exhaustible resources into two types.

They are:

(i) renewable and

(ii) non-renewable resource.

3. What are the main aims of soil conservation?

Ans: The main aims of soil conservation are:

(i) To protect the soil from erosion.

(ii) To maintain the productivity of the soil.

4. Mention some uses of natural vegetation?

Ans: Vegetation cover prevents soil erosion, retains soil water, reduces the impact of blood and helps in maintaining natural balance between biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere and preserves species of plant in their natural habitats.

5. Define soil erosion..

Ans: Soil erosion is a natural process by which soil is removed from rocks.

6. What is afforestation and reforestation?

Ans: Afforestation means growing forests at fallow lands and reforestation means replanting of forests at places where they have been destroyed by excessive felling, looping or by forest fires.

7. What is the full form of NGO?

Ans: Non-Governmental Organisation.

8. Define Wildlife.

Ans: The term wildlife is referred to represent the non-domesticated animals living in a natural habitat. But in its widest sense “wildlife’ refers to all flora and fauna of the natural habitat.

9. How many wildlife sanctuaries are there in India today?

Ans: There are 421 wildlife sanctuaries in India today.

10. Name two wildlife sanctuaries of Assam.

Ans: Pobiera and Manas.

11. How many national parks and biosphere reserves are there in India?

Ans: In India there are 75 national parks and 14 biosphere reserves.

12. Name two National Parks.

Ans: Gir National Park and Kaziranga National Park.

13. Name two biosphere reserves. 

Ans: Nokrek-Tura Range and Kaziranga and Manas biosphere reserves in Assam.

14. How many Rhinoceroses are there in Kaziranga according to 1999 census?

Ans: There are about 1552 Rhinoceroses in Kaziranga according to 1999 census.

15. Which wildlife sanctuary is known as Rhino sanctuary?

Ans: Kaziranga wildlife sanctuary of Assam. 

16. When do we observe wildlife week every year?

Ans: We observe wildlife week every year from 1st October to 8th October.

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