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Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 1 Introduction of Anthropology
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Introduction of Anthropology
Chapter – 1
Very short type questions
1. Who coined the word Anthropology?
Answer: The word Anthropology was coined by the great Greek Philosopher ‘Aristotle’.
2. What is the etymological meaning of the word Anthropology?
Answer: The word Anthropology is derived from two Greek words “Anthropos” meaning man And “logos” meaning science. The literal meaning of Anthropology is, therefore, the science of man or study about man.
3. What is the meaning of ‘Anthropos’?
Answer: The meaning of Anthropos is man.
4. Give the definitions of Anthropology?
Answer: Anthropology has been defined by many scholars in different ways in different periods. The following are some of the definition given by different scholars are-:-
a) Herskovits, “Anthropology is the study of man and his work.”
b) A.L Kroeber, “Anthropology is the the science of man, his work and behaviour.”
c) Beals and Hoijer, “Anthropology was concerned with all human past and present along with all of their works and activities.”
d) F. Boas, “Anthropology deals with man as social being.”
e) Jacob and Stern, “Anthropology is the scientific study of the physical, social and cultural development along with the behaviour of human beings since their appearance on this earth.”
f) Kluckhohn, “Anthropology deals with various aspects of man. It is the science which comes nearest to the total study of man.”
g) The Concise of Oxford Dictionary, “Anthropology is the study of mankind especially of its societies and customs, study of structure and evolution of man as an animal.”
5. What are the main branches of Anthropology?
Answer: Anthropology deals with man basically on two perspectives; firstly, man is a mammal and primate of highest order. Secondly, man is a being who lives by culture. These two perspectives on man have emerged into two main branches or division of anthropology: Physical Anthropology and Cultural Anthropology.
A) Physical Anthropology: Physical Anthropology is that branch of Anthropology which deals with human origin, evolution and variation. This branch is further divided into i) human biology ii) human evolution iii) human variation iv) human genetics
a) Human Biology: Physical Anthropology has been packed up with many concrete biological principles and concepts.
b) Human Evolution: Evolution has been understood as a change in the morphology of organisms through time.
c) Human Variation: Another basic concern of physical anthropology is the studying of the existing varieties of man.
d) Human Genetic: Genetic is that branch of biological science which deals with the transmission hereditary factors from one generation to the next and also the way in which they express themselves during the development and life of an individual. Thus it is called as the science of inheritance.
B. Cultural Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology means the study of human culture. It also studies human customs, norms, traditions, social life, religion, art, science, literature and economic and political organisation. According to Beals and Hoijer, “Cultural anthropology studies the origin and history of man’s culture, their evolution and development, and the structure and functioning of human culture in every place and time”. this branch has been further divided into
i) Social Anthropology.
ii) Prehistoric Archaeology.
iv) Linguistic Anthropology.
a) Social Anthropology: Social Anthropology is the study of social behaviour especially from the point of view of the systematic comparative study of social forms and institution.
b) Prehistoric Archaeology: Archaeology is a specialised science dealing with remains of past human cultural activity.
c) Ethnology: Ethnology is regarded as a major field of cultural anthropology.
d) Linguistic Anthropology: Linguistic, the study of language, is a specialised academic discipline.
6. Write briefly the scope of Anthropology.
Answer: The scope of Anthropology are:-
a) Firstly, anthropology studies man both present and past along with his sub human and pre human origin.
b) Secondly, it studies man at all levels of culture. According to D.N Majumdar & Madan defines Anthropology is the study of physical, social and cultural aspect of man. Anthropology tries to find out the differences and causes with reference to the structure, function and other manifestation according to time, place and condition. The broadness of the subject gradually led into many sub branches. In real sense, anthropology is a bridge between the sciences and the humanities in terms of its research focus and methods.
7. Write the definition of Anthropology as given by Herskovits or Beals and Hoijer.
Answer: The definition of Anthropology as given by Herskovits are: Anthropology is the study of man and his work.
Beals and Hoijer: Anthropology was concerned with all human past and present along with all of their works and activities.
8. Write the definition of Anthropology as given by A.L. Kroeber.
Answer: The definition of Anthropology as given by A.L. Kroeber are:- Anthropology is the science of man, his work and behaviour.
9. Name the two famous books written by Darwin.
Answer: The two famous books written by Darwin are:-
a) Origin of species.
b) Descent of Man.
10. Mention two major objectives of Anthropology.
Answer: Two major objectives of Anthropology are:-
a) Firstly, the curiosity about strange people and customs in far off parts of the world.
b) Secondly, to serve the society through the anthropological knowledge.
11. “Anthropology is the science of man”. State what you understand by this statement.
Answer: Anthropology is the science of man. The anthropology is derived from the Greek word”Anthropos” meaning man and “logos” meaning science. The Greek philosopher Aristotle was the first scholar to coin the word Anthropology. The etymological meaning of Anthropology is a discipline of infinite curiosity about human being. Anthropology is the study of man in totality.
Anthropologists take a broad approach to understanding the many different aspects of the human experience, which we call holism. They consider the past, through archaeology, to see how human groups lived hundreds or thousands of years ago and what was important to them. They consider what makes up our biological bodies and genetics, as well as our bones, diet, and health.
Anthropologists also compare humans with other animals to see what we have in common with them and what makes us unique. Even though nearly all humans need the same things to survive, like food, water, and companionship, the ways people meet these needs can be very different.
12. Write briefly the scope of physical Anthropology.
Answer: The scope of physical Anthropology are:- physical Anthropology is that branch of Anthropology which deals with human origin, evolution and variation. This branch is further divided into
i) human biology.
ii) human evolution.
iii) human variation.
iv) human genetics.
i) Human Biology: Physical Anthropology has been packed up with many concrete biological principles and concepts. The biology of human being differs from other animals because of the impact of cultural achievements. Physical Anthropology is engaged with the biological features of man and their successive development, change and structural variation through time.
ii) Human Evolution: Evolution has been understood as a change in the morphology of organisms through time. It can be understood that human evolution cannot be analysed as purely biological process, rather it must be processed through the impact of culture. Human evolution is the result of the interaction between biology and culture. Human evolution is the process of the changing situation between ancestral and descendant population. Thus, it has been characterised by two principle components i.e. biological or organic and cultural or super organic.
iii) Human Variation: Another basic concern of physical anthropology is the studying of the existing varieties of man. Such studies on one hand refer to the extent of human variation which in the specific anthropological context called as Racial Anthropology.
iv) Human Genetic: Genetic is that branch of biological science which deals with the transmission hereditary factors from one generation to the next and also the way in which they express themselves during the development and life of an individual. Thus it is also called as the science of inheritance.
The physical anthropology during the present period has been highly influenced by the result of genetic studies.
Apart from these sub branches, other studies of physical anthropology like:
a) Biological Anthropology.
b) Forensic Anthropology.
c) Medical Anthropology.
e) Sports anthropology.
i) Nutritional Anthropology.
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