Biography of Sukhdev Thapar – Indian Revolutionary

India did not got rid of nearly 200 years of British rule on the same day. At the heart of this was the spirit of the people of India towards freedom because of which India got freedom today. The people of India unitedly started a revolution against the British. Youths from different parts of greater India participated in this revolution. In the interest of the country, these young people actively participated in this freedom movement and created a precedent of patriotism. Sukhdev Thapar is one of the most powerful fighters of the freedom struggle that started against the British and one of the most important persons who played a very important role in India’s freedom struggle.  At the age of 23, Sukhdev Thapar laid down his life for the country and set a burning example of patriotism.

Biography of Sukhdev Thapar

Biography of Sukhdev Thapar

Join Telegram channel

Table of Contents

NameSukhdev Thapar[1]
Date of BirthMay 15, 1907
Place of BirthLudhiana, Punjab, British India
Father’s NameRamlal Thapar
Mother’s NameRalli Devi
EducationNational College, Lahore
DeathMarch 23, 1931

Early Life of Sukhdev Thapar

One of the most revolutionary leaders who played an important role in India’s freedom struggle was Sukhdev Thapar. Born on May 15, 1907 in a Punjabi Khatri family of the Hindu community, Sukhdev Thapar laid down his life for India’s independence. Born in Ludhiana, Punjab, Sukhdev Thapar’s father’s name is Ramlal Thapar and mother’s name is Ralli Devi. Three years after his birth, Sukhdev Thapar’s father died. Due to which Sukhdev Thapar grew up under the supervision of his uncle Lala Achintaram in the midst of various problems and challenges. Lala Achintaram believed in the Arya Socialist Ideology and was an active member of the Congress.

Sukhdev Thapar got a socially conscious atmosphere in his home since he was a child. It was then that he realized the meaning of subjugation. He was a witness to the brutal atrocities committed by the British on the people of India on many occasions. Because of which, from his childhood, he had anti-British sentiments in his mind and the tide of love for the country was raised in his mind. While still in school, Sukhdev Thapar refused to salute the British military officers who came to the school. The teacher had to face punishment for the non-courtesy treatment shown by Sukhdev Thapar towards he British military officer, yet he did not give up his self-respect. Sukhdev Thapar’s uncle Lala Achintaram was a freedom fighter. His uncle had to be arrested in the fight against British colonialism. As a child, these bitter experiences from the British colonial rule naturally caused anger in his mind against the British. During his college studies, Sukhdev studied various revolutions in the world such as the Russian Revolution etc. Sukhdev Thapar tried to usher in a revolution against the British in order to bring back his birthrights and freedom.

Also Read: Biography of Nana Saheb Peshwa II

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

After enrolling at the National College in Lahore in 1921, Sukhdev Thapar came in contact with many revolutionary youths, including Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan, Yashpal and many more. He subsequently joined the 1928 Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HRA). At that time, he was instrumental in forming revolutionary calls in Punjab and various parts of North India. It is to be noted that Sukhdev, who was the head of the Punjab unit of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, also played an important role in taking various important decisions in the organization. The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association is a fundamentalist organization involved in revolutionary activities against the British government. At first Sukhdev, along with his fellow fighters, were influenced by the father of anarchism, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin of Russia. Later on, however,  the thoughts of the Indian Communists Chhabil Das and Sohan Singh Josh were attracted to ideologies and activities.

Apart from this, Sukhdev Thapar narrated to the students the glorious golden independent history of India. Through which the students tried to realize their historical importance and were determined to bring their birth rights. Importantly, along with other fellow revolutionaries, Sukhdev Thapar, together with Bhagat Singh, played a special role in the formation of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha (NJSB) in Lahore in 1926. Apart from preparing the youth for the freedom struggle against the British through the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, they also took various positive steps for the working and peasant class in protest against communalism and untouchability that developed a rational scientific temper. Apart from this, it also formed the Lahore Students Union and Bal Bharat Sabha for college and school students. In a word, they took various steps to increase the national consciousness among the youths of the country.

Later, Sukhdev Thapar participated in the protest against the Simon Commission. The Simon Commission was a commission set up by the British government on November 26, 1927 to investigate the development of government systems, education and development of representative institutions in British India and to suggest future policies on subsequent constitutional reforms. But no Indian was included as a member of the commission. For which protests were held democratically in different parts of India. On October 30,1928, Lala Lajpat Rai, a prominent leader from Punjab, participated in the protest in Punjab against the Simon Commission. Lala Lajpat Rai was also seriously injured along with other protesters due to the lathi charge of the protesting mob by the police force personnel at this democratic and peaceful protest site. As a result, Lala Lajpat Rai died on November 17, 1928.

Importantly, Sukhdev Thapare had some ideological differences with Lala Lajpat Rai. But he could not easily accept the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, who had to lose his life due to the inhumanity of the British. Considering Lajpat Roy’s death as a national insult by the colonial bureaucracy, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association decided to avenge his death. The mastermind of this decision was Sukhdev Thapar. Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Rajguru etc. have done this work successfully.

It may be recalled that on December 17, 1928, about a month after the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, police superintendent Scott was conspired to be killed by Chandrashekhar Azad and Rajguru. But by mistake, instead of Scott, they shot and killed police officer John P. Saunders. It is to be noted that the British escaped arrest and extensive raids to arrest the killers of John P. Saunders. Sukhdev is best known for his assaults in the Lahore Conspirecy Case. He is best remembered for his involvement in the assassination of Assistant Superintendent of Police, J.P. Saunders, on 17 December 1928, by Bhagat Singh and Shivaram Rajguru, undertaken in response to the violent death of the veteran leader Lala Lajpat Rai.

Lahore Conspiracy Case

Sukhdev was the prime accuse in the Lahore Conspiracy Case of 1929 whose official crown was “Crown versus Sukhdev and others.” In 1929, several members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association dropped two bombs into the legislature chamber in protest against the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Dispute Bill. In May of that year, the British government arrested Sukhdev and his colleagues in Lahore. It is to be noted that after his arrest, he actively participated in several revolutionary activities like ‘prison hunger strike’ in 1929 to assert his rights.


It is to be noted that during the trial of the bomb blast, the British government found evidence that Sukhdev Thapar was involved in the killing of Saunders at the hands of the police. In view of this, the British government also arrested other members of the Hindustan Association including Sukhdev, Rajguru and Bhagat Singh. It is important to note that after the completion of this trial, the government ordered that Bhagat Singh be sentenced to death.

Even after being ordered to be hanged, Sukhdev Thapar, Bhagat Singh and their associates tried to awaken the public from jail with a strong attitude without being at all perturbed. Later, Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, along with Shivaram Rajguru, were hanged on March 23, 1931. Their bodies were secretly cremated at the banks of the River Sutlej. Sukhdev’s patriotism, who sacrificed his life for the country at the age of just 23, will remain an ideal and a source of inspiration for all.


1. When and where was Sukhdev Thapar born?

Ans: Sukhdev Thapar was born on May 15, 1907 in Ludhiana, Punjab.

2. What is the father’s and mothers of Sukhdev Thapar?

Ans: Sukhdev Thapar’s father’s name is Ramlal Thapar and mother’s name is Ralli Devi.

3. When did Sukhdev Thapar died?

Ans: On March 23, 1931, at the age of 23, Sukhdev Thapar laid down his life for the country.

4. Why did the British government sentence Sukhdev Thapar to death?

Ans: Sukhdev Thapar and Bhagat Singh conspired to kill police superintendent Scott on December 17,1928. But by mistake, instead of Scott, they shot and killed police officer John P. Saunders. In view of this, the British government arrested other members of the Hindustan Association, including Sukhdev, Rajguru, and Bhagat Singh. Later, at least in the trial process, the British government sentenced the rest of the struggling members, including Sukhdev Thapar, to death.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top