Biography of Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru is one of the individuals who have played a major role in the evolution of the system in the history of India’s political system. Jawaharlal Nehru’s contribution through thought and action played an important role in developing the collective national consciousness of India.

Biography of Jawaharlal Nehru

Biography of Jawaharlal Nehru

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Table of Contents

NameJawaharlal Nehru[1]
Date of Birth14 November,1889
Place of BirthAllahabad, Uttar Pradesh
Father’s NameMotilal Nehru
Mother’s NameSwarupa Rani
EducationHera Public School, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
AwardBharat Ratna (1955)
DiedMay 27,1964

Early Life

Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889 in Allahabad city of Uttar Pradesh. Jawaharlal Nehru’s father’s name was Motilal Nehru and his mother’s name was Swaruparani Nehru.

Jawaharlal Nehru studied at home instead of pursuing primary education in formal educational institutions. Motilal Nehru entrusted an English woman with the responsibility of looking after Jawaharlal Nehru to make him like an English boy. Later Motilal Nehru appointed T. Ferdinand Brooks as the tutor of Jawaharlal Nehru. Under the supervision of the tutor, Jawaharlal Nehru studied the valuable works of others like H.G Wales, Scott, Dickens and acquired knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindi and Urdu as well as chemistry, plants, physics.

Jawaharlal Nehru, who travelled to foreign at the age of 15 to pursue higher education, studied at Hera Public School. He later enrolled in Cambridge “Trinity” College in 1907 and from there he had done his graduation with honors.

He completed his career in the Allahabad High Court after his return to India in 1912 after pursuing higher education. He also actively participated in Indian politics. Importantly, Jawaharlal Nehru turned into one of the leaders of this freedom struggle, actively participating in the freedom movement against the British, following the Congress session held in Bankipur in 1912 and subsequently at the Congress session in Uttar Pradesh. He was one of the people who led taking India’s freedom struggle forward under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Jawaharlal Nehru was jailed for 3,262 days in a total of 9 times for actively participating in the freedom movement against the British. Importantly, he has written several books while imprisoned and given them as gifts to Indian citizens. Apart from this, Nehru also contributed immensely to the development of political concerns in India. He was elected general secretary of the All India Congress Committee in 1923. Jawaharlal Nehru, who took over as congress president on July 6, 1946, served as congress president for three consecutive years from 1951 to 1954. It may be recalled that Nehru had accepted India’s proposal for full independence during his presidency. Governor General O’ Wavell was elected leader on August 17,1946, he was elected leader by forming an interim government to invite the then Congress president, Jawaharlal to form an interim government, followed by Lord Mount Batten’s appointment as prime minister of independent India on August 15,1947.

Also Read: Biography of Lal Bhadur Shastri


Jawaharlal Nehru, who served as the first Prime Minister of Independent India from August 15, 1947 to May 27, 1964, took many important steps to build a modern India. Jawaharlal Nehru played an important role in developing a secular approach to nationalism and political studies by not analyzing nationalism from a narrow point of view. He strongly advocated the establishment of unity among various religious groups. He was a major sponsor of the concept of secular nationalism. It may be recalled that Jawaharlal Nehru had emphasized the importance of establishing national solidarity after India gained independence. Nehru focused on the welfare of every person in the society by establishing the goal of Indian democracy on the basis of secularism, democracy and socialism. According to Nehru’s opinion, political, social and economic equality was the hallmark of a welfare nation. Importantly, Jawaharlal Nehru’s idea of a welfare nation has acquired position in the Indian Constitution. Nehru’s emphasis on political views was the basis of a welfare nation – the trust in a representative government based on the parliamentary functioning institution. It may be recalled that Jawaharlal Nehru believed in the principle of equality. Similarly, he stressed the need for a socialist democracy.

Jawaharlal Nehru also advocated a mixed economic system. The mixed economic system spoke of public sector co-habitation in some areas and private sector co-habitation in some other areas. He opined that the country’s defense products manufacturing industry and all basic industries/enterprises should be controlled by the nation.

Jawaharlal Nehru, who has given special importance to all round development of every person in the society, is a Western philosopher in developing the concept of democracy. Nehru’s faith in the individual entity also helped in establishing faith in the people. He opposed the Totalitarian/Dictatorial society. According to Nehru, who considers democracy as a way of life and the basis of social structure, democracy is a process of building a dynamic society in which every person can be given full opportunity to develop.

Importantly, Jawaharlal Nehru sponsored inter-nationalism to develop mutual relations between the nations. For which he spoke of forming a World Union(world federation) and a World Government. Where all countries will have equal status and each country will have equal rights and partnerships to resolve conflicts and establish peace. Jawaharlal Nehru, a strong supporter of UN policies, also believed that the fruitful decision taken by the United Nations to bring peace in the world, representing the world community, would lead to the development of internationalism. Nehru expressed his deep faith in internationalism through secular and Panchsheel policies. Importantly Jawaharlal Nehru invented group neutral policies during the Cold War.

Throughout his life, he emphasized on maintaining mutual cooperation, goodwill, freedom, equality and brotherhood. He also sponsored peace and security around the world through the concept of internationalism.

Jawaharlal Nehru’s notable contributions to the history of India and the political thinking of India are – Glimpses of world history, Autobiography, The Discovery of India, Letters from a Father to His Daughter.

Jawaharlal Nehru, who served as the first Prime Minister of India, believed that today children are future citizens of the country tomorrow. His immense love for children was revealed in his behavior and work. Jawaharlal Nehru who spent much of his life among children adopted various schemes for child welfare as Prime Minister. For which he became known among the entire children of the country as Cacha Nehru (Nehru Uncle). It was decided to celebrate his birthday as Children’s Day keeping in mind as the child lover, Jawaharlal Nehru who died in 1964.

Jawaharlal Nehru was the person to bend the Gorki backbone of two hundred years of British exploitation, and the first Prime Minister of India to be bifurcated with a great hatred of communalism. He is the eternal symbol of the inspiration of India’s awakened nine-man work and the image of the hope of the peace-loving human beings of the world. Nehru, the symbol of action, took various steps to establish India with dignity in the world court with a liberal, grand, and progressive approach. Taking over as the first Prime Minister of independent India, he took special initiatives to revamp India in the midst of various conflicts, problems, challenges and so on, including poverty, food, communal conflict, illiteracy, unemployment, foreign issues, internal problems, etc. All countries in the world have accepted that he is world famous leader and good political men who is unable to usher in progress at all levels of the social system.



1. When and where was Jawaharlal Nehru born?

Ans: He was born on 14 November 1889.

2. When did Jawaharlal Nehru was appointed as first prime minister of India?

Ans: He was appointed as first prime minister of independent India August 15,1947.

3. What is the other name of Nehru for which he became famous among childrens?

Ans: He became known among the entire children of the country as Cacha Nehru (Nehru Uncle).

4. When do we celebrate Children’s day?

Ans: We celebrate children’s day on 14th of November, on the birth date of Jawaharlal Nehru.

5. When did Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna?

Ans: He was awarded with Bharat Ratna in 1955.

6. Name some of the books written by Jawaharlal Nehru?

Ans: Some of the books written by Nehru are – The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, An Autobiography: Toward Freedom, Letter from a Father to his Daughter etc.

7. When did Jawaharlal Nehru died?

Ans: He died on May 27,1964.

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