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NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Climate of India
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Climate of India
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
INTEXT QUESTION 17.1
Q.1. Name two places in India-one experiencing the highest and the other lowest temperatures.
Ans. Jaisalmer in Rajasthan and dras in Jammu and Kashmir.
Q.2. Study the table (textbook page 25) and answer the following questions:
(i) Name the station which has the most equable climate
(ii) Which station has the highest range of temperature?
(iii) Which station has the highest temperature in.
Ans. (a) Thiruvananthapuram.
(iv) Name the four most rainy months in India.
Ans. (a) June.
(c) August and
(v) Name a place in India which has the lowest rainfall.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.2
Q.1. Name the mountain range which acts as a climatic divide for the entire Indian subcontinent.
Ans. Himalaya mountain range.
Q.2. Why is the climate of Mumbai equable than of Delhi?
Ans. Mumbai lies along the Western coast while Delhi is too far away to have any oceanic influence.
Q.3. Name the Jet stream which brings western disturbances of India.
Ans. Westerly jet stream.
Q.4. Why do northeast monsoons cause no rainfall in most parts of India?
Ans. Because they are cold and dry land bearing winds.
Q.5. Why does reversal of winds take place in India before the onset of south-west monsoons?
Ans. Owing on the reversal of air pressure conditions between land and sea at the peak of summer season.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.3
Q.1. Define monsoons.
Ans. Monsoons refer to a system of winds in the tropical regions under which the direction of winds is reversed completely between summer and winter.
Q.2. What is the main cause of the original of monsoon according to Flohn?
Ans. The main cause of the origin of monsoon according to Flohn is the shifting of planetary pressure and wind belts.
Q.3. List three important theories explaining the origin of monsoon in India.
Ans. 1. Differential heating and cooling of land and sea.
2. Shifting of planetary pleasure and wind belts.
3. System of jet stream.
IN TEXT QUESTIONS 17.4
List four important features of each season given below:
(a) Cold Weather Season.
Ans. Important features:
(i) Cold and dry in most parts of India.
(ii) Direction of winds is generally northeasterly.
(iii) Light rain, hails in northwestern plains and snowfall in western Himalayan region.
(iv) Rainfall along coromandel coast from north-east monsoons.
(b) Hot Weather Season.
Ans. Important features:
(i) Generally hot and dry throughout India.
(ii) Variable wind direction.
(iii) Blowing of hot winds called Loo in northern plains causing heat strokes.
(iv) Light rain in Kerala, West Bengal and Assam.
(c) The Advancing Southwest Monsoon Season.
Ans. Important features:
(i) Generally rainy throughout India.
(ii) General direction of winds is southwesterly.
(iii) Onset and withdrawal of these winds is somewhat certain with marginal variations.
(iv) Amount of rainfall varies from place to place and time to time.
(d) The Retreating Southwest Monsoon Season.
Ans. Important features:
(i) Weakening of low pressure area over northern parts of India.
(ii) Fall in temperature throughout India.
(iii) Shifting of low pressure areas to the Indian Ocean.
(iv) Origin of cyclonic storms in the Bay of Bengal causing heavy rains on coastal areas.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.5
Q.1. Write True or False against each of the following statement:
(a) The amount of rainfall decrease from east to west in northern plains.
(b) Gujarat and Rajasthan receive low rainfall as monsoon winds became dry on reaching these states.
(c) The date of arrival of monsoon wins is always definite in different parts of India.
(d) Coromandel coast receive bulk of rainfall in October November from N.E. monsoon winds.
(e) Only certain parts of India experience the occurrence of droughts and floods.
Q.2. Name two areas of India which receive less then 20 cm of annual rainfall.
Ans. (i) Ladakh.
(ii) Rajasthan desert.
Q.1. How do Western disturbance influence the weather conditions of North West India.
Ans. In cold weather season Western disturbance are common in Northwest part of India. These disturbances originate in the Mediterranean region by westerly Jet streams. Covering a long distance over Iraq, Iran and Pakistan they reach India around mid December. Their arrival results in the increase of temperature and in high rains over northern plains. They cause widespread snowfall over western Himalayas and the adjoining ranges. The measure rainfall record of great importance to the standing crops particularly in wheat in unirrigated areas.
Q.2. Distinguish between:
(i) The cold weather season and hot weather season.
|Cold weather season||Hot weather season|
|1. Duration of cold weather season is from December to February.||1. Duration of hot weather season is from March to May.|
|2. In cold weather season the days are short and hot while nights are cold and long.||2. In hot weather season the temperature is found high. The highest temperature is 48°C in Jaisalmer.|
|3. Dry weather and clear sky.||3. Air pressure becomes low in summer season.|
|4. Rainfall is less.||4. Loo and storms blow.|
|5. Centre of high pressure in winter is found in western India.||5. Rainfall high in summer.|
(b) The Southwest and northeast monsoon:
|Southwest monsoon||Northeast monsoon|
|1. The period of south west Monsoon is from June to September.||1. The period of North East monsoon is December to February.|
|2. They are caused rainfall as winds blow from sea to land and moisture-laden winds||2. These are cold and dry as winds blow from land to sea.|
|3. The period of South west monsoon is known as rainy season for most parts of the country.||3. They do not cause rainfall and conditions remain cold and dry. They bring rain along Coromandel coast.|
Q.3. Give reasons:
(i) Dras in Kargil is always colder than thiruvananthapuram.
Ans. Because dras is located in high altitude and latitude in the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir while Thiruvananthapuram has coastal location is nearer to equator.
(ii) Winter is dry and cold over greater parts of India.
Ans. During winter as a result of low temperature a feeble high pressure area develops over Northern parts of India. This mild high pressure causes the off-shore northeast monsoon winds. Their direction in northern plain is westerly owing to the relief. These land bearing winds being cold and dry do not give rain over most parts of the country.
(iii) Southwest monsoon starts retreating from northern India after September.
Ans. The retreat of Southwest monsoon winds take place due to weakening of low pressure area over the northwestern parts of India. This happens due to low temperature caused by apparent shift of the sun towards the equator and also owing to this widespread rains bringing down temperature perceptibly.
(iv) The western Coastal Plains receive more rainfall compared to the interior plateau region lying east of the Western Ghats.
Ans. Starting from the southern coast of Gujarat the isohyets of 100 cm runs some what parallel to the coast of Western Ghats of the Kanyakumari as the South west monsoon winds strike these ghats. So the Western Coastal plain receive more rainfall compared to the interior plateau region lying east of the Western Ghats.
Q.4. Describe five major factors which influence the climate of India. Illustrate your answer with example.
Ans. The five factors influencing the climate of India are as under:
1. Location and latitudinal extent: India lies between 8°N to 37°N latitudes. The Tropic of Cancer divides into two parts. The southern part is closer to equator has high temperature. The northern part lie in the warm temperate zone. Hence it experiences low temperature in winter.
2. Distance from the sea: Peninsular India is surrounded by the water bodies by the three sides. Hence the climate of coastal Plains is equable and climate of interior parts of India is extreme or Continental type of climate.
3. The northern mountain ranges: These ranges protect India from the cold winds of Central Asia during winter. They act as an effective physical barrier for the rain bearing southwest monsoon winds to cross the frontiers of India. Thus these ranges act as climate divide between Indian subcontinent and Central Asia.
4. Physiography: The physical features influence the air temperature, pressure, direction of winds and rainfall in different parts of the country. Western Coastal plain receive the more rainfall than the interior parts of Karnataka and Tamilnadu lying on the East and Western Ghats.
5. Monsoon winds: The complete reversal in the direction of winds over India brings about a sudden change in season.