NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Law and Social Justice Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Law and Social Justice and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Law and Social Justice and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.
NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Law and Social Justice
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Law and Social Justice and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Law and Social Justice
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE – III [CIVICS]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Q.1. Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Ans. (i) Farm workers are not getting minimum wages in villages.
(ii) Women workers are not getting equal wages as that of men which is not permitted by law.
Q.2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Ans. (i) They get cheap labours or workers in India.
(ii) Since India has the second largest population country, there is a very vast internal market of foreign goods available in India.
(iii) India’s geographical conditions are favourable. India is linked to many other countries of the world. The companies can export their goods to major markets of the world.
Q.3. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal Gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Ans. The victims of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy have not got justice even after 28 years of Bhopal Gas Tragedy on December 2, 1984.
Even today 50,000 people are too sick to work. Many of them have developed severe respiratory disorders, eye- problems and other disorders.
Even today many factories, workhshops mines are running without proper safety measures.
Q.4. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Ans. (i) Meaning: Law enforcement means that the law maker and enforcer, the government ensures that safety laws are duly implemented.
(ii) The government (Executive) is responsible for enforcement law.
(iii) The enforcement of law is so important that without enforcement, the framing of laws meaningless. Safety laws were not enforced that led to Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
Q.5. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Ans. (i) Laws should ensure that business men use ISI marked balance, weights or measurements.
(ii) The products especially the medicines and eatables should have MRP (Maximum Retail Price) and expiry date, marked on them.
It is through laws that the markets are regulated and the relation between workers, consumers and producers are not allowed to become explosive.
Q.6. Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 km away from the present location. Write about how your life would change. Read out the response in the classroom.
Ans. (a) I will have to shift my family.
(b) I will have to give ‘Change of address’ notice for my bank and other legal documents.
(c) I will have to change the school of my children. If they don’t get a good school, their studies will suffer.
Q.7. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Ans. (i) The legislative organ of the government makes laws.
(ii) The executive organ of the government implements these laws and enforcement of the laws safeguards the interest of the minorities.
(iii) The judiciary organ of the government decides punishment for the law breakers.
(iv) The government ensures that the social justice is achieved in the society, for example: workers do not work below minimum wages; child labour is not practised.
(v) The government also undertakes welfare functions are met.
Q.8. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to:
(b) water. and
What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Ans. (i) The sources of environment pollution in our area are:
(a) Air is being pollutes from smoke coming from factories, Chimneys.
(b) Smoke from petrol and diesel vehicles also pollute the air.
(c) Water pollution is caused by dirt, chemical, fertilizers and garbage from factories, farms and houses.
(d) Human wastes and dirt from factories pollute the soil.
(ii) The steps taken to reduce pollution are:
(a) New laws are being made to check the environment pollution.
(b) CNG vehicles are promoted which do not cause pollution.
(c) Actions are being taken against companies who are responsible to violate environment laws.
(iii) Other suggestions: Laws alone cannot make the environment clean. It is the people and every individual who is responsible and should take voluntary actions to minimize pollution.
Q.9. How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Ans. (i) Ealier, the environment was considered a free entity which anyone could spoil. There was hardly any law to protect the environment. Neither the people, nor the government could take any action.
(ii) The Bhopal Gas Tragedy has brought the issues of environment to the forefront. introduced laws to protect the environment. The court have declared the environment to be a public facility and the government is responsible for checking pollution, clear rivers and punish the wrong doers.
Q.10. What do you think the famous cartoonist R.K Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read on page 123?
It is really cruel birding kids like this. I had to hire that boy help my son.
(i) I think the famous cartoonist is trying to draw our attention towards child-labour. In the cartoon, a rich woman hires another child to lesson the burden of heavy school-bag on her child’s shoulders.
(ii) The law of 2006, is an amendment to the child labour and Prevention Act, which bans children under 14 years of age from working as domestic servants or as workers in dhabas, restaurants, tea shops etc.
Q.11. You have read about the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and on-going struggle. Students from countries across the world have come together to support this struggle for justice. From protest marches to awareness campaigns, you can read about their activities on the website www.studentsforbhopal.com. The website also has resources such as photos, poster, documentaries, victims’ statements, etc.
Use this and other sources to make a wallpaper/exhibition on the bhopal tragedy for your classroom. Invite the whole school to see and talk about it.
Ans. It is classroom activity. Do yourself.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Why do we need laws for safeguarding the environment?
Ans. Environmental laws provide the foundation for government policies and actions for the conservation of the government and for ensuring that the use of natural resources in both equitable and sustainable.
Q.2. How can the government ensure social justice?
Ans. The government can ensure social justice by making laws, enforcing them and upholding them.
Q.3. Write three safety measures that are necessary for workers.
Ans. (a) Alarm system.
(b) Emergency exists.
(c) Properly functioning machinery.
Q.4. What is meant by ‘Right against Exploitation’?
Ans. Right against exploitation states that no one can be forced to work under bondage or for low wages.
Q.5. Write the full form of C.N.G.
Ans. CNG stands for Compressed Natural Gas.
Q.6. Name the article according to the forced labour, traffic in human beings, and work without payment (beggar) are prohibited.
Ans. Article 23.
Q.7. Why do you think the value of a worker low in India?
Ans. The value of a worker is low in India because if one worker is lost by his post another can easily be hired in his place.
Q.8. Name three essential goods whose price should not be high.
Ans. (a) Sugar.
(c) Food grains.
Q.9. What was the name of the company, which was involved in the Bhopal Tragedy?
Ans. Union Carbide.
Q.10. What is the importance of the law of minimum wages?
Ans. The law of minimum wages is important for the workers because the workers works really hard but they do not wages even for their livelihood. They have no bargaining power and only law of minimum wages can ensure them healthy living.
Q.11. Do you think Bhopal Gas Tragedy, 1984 was an accident?
Ans. No, the disaster was not an accident, UC had deliberately ignored the essential safety measures in order to cut costs much before the Tragedy in 1984, there had been incidents of gas leak, killing a worker and injuring several others.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Why are the Indian workers valued less than foreign workers?
Ans. Indian workers are valued less than the workers because:
(i) India is an over populated country. One worker can easily be replaced by another.
(ii) There is much unemployment so one worker can be replaced by another.
(iii) To earn their livelihood, Indian workers are even ready to work in unsafe work conditions.
(iv) They are not educated and unaware of the rules and regulations prevailing in the country.
(v) Even if the compensation is not given to them for damages, they cannot fight their case.
Q.2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Ans. Advantages that foreign companies would get in setting productions in India are:
(a) Foreign companies will get cheap labour wages that the companies pay to workers say in the U.S., wages are far higher than what they have to pay to workers in poor countries like India.
(b) For lower pay, companies can get longer hours of work.
(c) Additional expenses such as housing facilities for workers are also fewer. Thus companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
Q.3. Explain the ‘Right against Exploitation’.
Ans. Right against Exploitation implies the following:
(a) No one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.
(b) No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mines or engage in any other hazardous employment.
Q.4. What was the seen of environment before the Bhopal Gas Tragedy?
Ans. The seen of the environment before the Bhopal Tragedy was treated as a free entity and any industry could pollute the air and water without any restrictions. Whether it was our rivers, air, ground water the environment was being polluted and the health of the people disregarded. In 1984, there were very few laws protecting the environment in India, and there was hardly any enforcement of these laws. It was the Bhopal Gas disaster that brought the issue of environment to the forefront.
Q.5. What are the provisions for minimum wages Bill in India?
Ans. Following are the provisions of minimum wages bill:
(a) A worker has to be paid not less than the minimum wage by the employer.
(b) The minimum wages are revised upwards every few years.
Q.6. Why there is a need for stronger laws protecting workers rights and better enforcement of these laws?
Ans. With more and more industries being set up both by local and foreign business in India, there is a great need for stronger laws protecting workers rights and better enforcement of these laws.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Describe the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and the havoc caused by it.
Ans. Bhopal Gas Tragedy can be explained under the following headings:
(i) Incidence: The world’s worst industrial tragedy took place in Bhopal 24 years ago. Union Carbide (UC) an American company had a factory in the city in which it produced pesticides. At midnight on 2 December 1984 methyl- isocyanate (MIC) – a highly poisonous gas-started leaking from this UC plant.
(ii) Reason for this incidence: The disaster was not an accident. UC had deliberately ignored the essential safety measures in order to cut costs.
(iii) Result/Havoc: This incident had the following results:
(a) Within three days more than 8,000 people were dead.
(b) Most of those exposed to the poisonous gas came from poor, working-class families, of which nearly 50,000 people are today too sick to work.
(c) Among those who survived, many developed severe respiratory disorders, eye problems and other disorders.
(d) Children developed peculiar abnormalities.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Multiple choice question
Tick (✔) the correct option
1. Which article introduces right to life as fundamental right?
(a) Article 21
(b) Article 19
(c) Article 24
Ans. (a) Article 21
2. What did the Union Carbide produce?
Ans. (b) Pesticides.
3. What is the full form of CNG?
(a) Carbide Natural Gas.
(b) Compressed National Gas.
(c) Compressed Natural Gas.
Ans. (c) Compressed Natural Gas.
4. The logos and certification help the consumer to buy good quality goods. ‘Agmark’ logo is given for:
(a) electrical goods.
(b) purity of gold.
Ans. (c) agriculture.
5. When was child labour prevention Act passed?
Ans. (b) 2006
6. Name the gas that caused devastation in Union Carbide Gas Tragedy.
Ans. (a) Methyl-Isocyanide.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
(A) Look at the given pictures and answer the following questions:
Q.1. Who are shown in the picture?
Ans. The workers are shown in the picture outside closed factories.
Q.2. Where will these workers get work now?
Ans. The workers will work as small traders or as daily wage labourers. Some might find work in even small productions units in unsafe working conditions.
(B) Look at the given picture and answer the following questions:
Q.1. Why are wells painted red?
Ans. The wells around the UC factory in Bhopal are painted red by the government to show that they are contaminated.
Q.2. Why do local people continue to use them?
Ans. Local people continue to use them as they have no other accessible source of water.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. Why do need a law on minimum wages?
Ans. We need a law on minimum wages so that there is no exploitation of workers by employers or by the capitalist. Law is needed/required to ensure just wages and to check under-payment.
Q.2. In what ways was the government responsible for the Bhopal gas tragedy.
Ans. Government held responsible for the Bhopal Gas tragedy because of the following reasons:
(a) First, the safety laws were lax in India.
(b) Second, even these weak safety laws were not enforced.
(c) Government officials refused to recognise the plant as hazardous and allowed it to come up in a populated locality.
VALUE BASED QUESTION
Q. 1. Write a detail note on Right toLife. Mention those rights also which have become a part of the Right to Life due to various judgments of the court.
Ans. Right to Life is the most important fundamental right guaranteed to every citizen under Article 21 of the Indian constitution. Article 21 provides that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. At present, Right to Life has become more meaningful and substantial because many other rights have become a part of Right to Life due to various judgments of the High Courts and Supreme Court. For example, injured farmer Hakim Sheikh established Right to Health as a part of the Right to Life.