NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Public Facilities

NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Public Facilities Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Public Facilities and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Public Facilities and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.

NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Public Facilities

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Public Facilities and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Public Facilities

Chapter: 21



Q.1. Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?

Ans. (i) Private companies throughout the world only operate for profit. To supply clean, pure water at affordable rate is not very affordable.

(i) The facilities provided by the private companies will not be affordable by all. A majority of the people would be deprived of the opportunity of availing the basic facilities and enjoying a decent life.

Q.2. Do you think water in Chennai is available and affordable by all? Discuss.

Ans. No water is not available and affordable in Chennai by all.

(i) Areas like Anna Nagar, where senior government officials reside, have tap water for a major part of the day. Even during water scarcity, a water tanker is arranged for them.

(ii) Residents of Mylapore get municipal water once in two days. 

(iii) Madipakam gets water once in four days.

(iv) The residents of Saidapet, a slum area do not have separate water connection of their own. The water comes only in common tap for 20 minutes twice a day.

(v) The water is not affordable to all. The middle class and rich people can dig borewells, buy water from tankers or even bottled water for drinking. The poor have the least access to water.

Q.3. How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of ground water? Can the government do anything in this regard?

Ans. The sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai is affecting adversely the local people.

(i) The ground water-level of surrounding towns and villages have dropped drastically resulting in the loss of drinking water to local residents.

(ii) The private companies or water dealers pay farmers an advance for the rights to exploit water sources on their land. These companies are using a fleet of over 13,000 water tankers.

(iii) Water has become short for agriculture resulting in less production of foodgrains.

Q.4. Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?

Ans. Private hospitals and private schools are located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas because:

(I) The infrastructural and modern facilities to run such institutes are not available in town or rural areas.

(ii) The skilled and educated doctors and educationists reside in major cities and very few of them would like to shift to rural areas or towns.

Q.5. Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.

Ans. No, I think the distribution of public facilities in our country is not adequate and fair.

(a) In major cities, there are pucca houses but in villages most of the people are even living in Kutcha houses. This is not fair for the biggest democratic country of the world.

(b) There are so many areas and villages where good road, proper schools, hospitals, good sanitation conditions, proper supply of pure water and electricity are not accessible till date.

(c) Even good hospitals and schools are also located in major cities only.

Q.6. Take some of the public facilities in your area, such as water, electricity etc. Is there scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be done? Complete the table.

Is it available?How can it be improved?

Ans. There is certainly a scope for improvement in public facilities in our area. Most important is sanitation. There is a big garbage disposal pit adjoining our area which is a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Also the carbon generated from dirt in the pit leads to leakage of gas air conditioners. The government has to take immediate actions to close the pit.

Is it available?How can it be improved?
WaterFour hours a dayTiming of water supply should be increased.
ElectricityLess capacity, low voltageGovt. should take steps to minimize wastage of electricity. More power plants should be installed.
RoadsIn poor conditionThey should be more even.
PublicCondition of buses not satisfactoryMore buses should be hired, there should be limit on number of passengers in a bus.

Q.7. Are the above public facilities shared equally by all the people in your area? Elaborate.

Ans. No, all the above facilities are not shared equally by all the people in your area. Nearly 20 percent people are living below the poverty line. They do not have access to pure and clean drinking water.

The rich people purchase sealed water bottles of branded companies. They have access to regular water supply through tap connections.

Q.8. Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the Census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the census is conducted.

Ans. Census is conducted every ten years. The last census was conducted in 2011.

The government appoints special people to collect data from door to door about population, occupation, access to public facilities. The data is compared with last figures and planned figures and suitable actions are taken.

Q.9. Private educational institutions schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.

Ans. The impacts of privatization of education will be as follows:

(i) The education will be more costly.

(ii) However, the new techniques of education will be followed with modern instruments. The private companies, in the competition, try to lend better facilities.

(iii) There will be more inequality in society because only people from richer strata will be able to afford to send their children to private institutions.



Q.1. What do you understand by public facilities?

Ans. Public facilities are the availability of essential amenities for all human beings to live. Some basic amenities are water, healthcare, electricity, public transport etc.

Q.2. Under which article ‘right to water’ is part of the right to life?

Ans. Under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution the ‘right to water’ is part of right to life.

Q.3. Which court had given her verdict on PIL by a citizen of Mahbubnagar? 

Ans. Andhra Pradesh High Court had given her verdict of PIL by a citizen of Mahbubnagar.

Q.4. What is the most essential feature of public facilities?

Ans. The most essential feature of public facilities is that it benefits all.

Q.5. What was the UN statement regarding water?

Ans. The UN statement regarding water was that “right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable, water for personal and domestic use”.

Q.6. How many children below five years of age die due to water related diseases in India?

Ans. Almost over 16 hundred children below five years of age die due to water related diseases in India.

Q.7. By whom the public facilities are equally distributed to everyone?

Ans. It is by the government that public facilities are distributed equally to everyone.

Q.8. How did the drinking water of Mahbubnagar get contaminated?

Ans. A textile company discharged poisonous chemicals in the river near the Mahbubnagar. This has contaminated the ground water, which was the source of irrigation and drinking water. 

Q.9. Why are private companies for water supply in Chennai called on contract?

Ans. Private companies for water supply are called ‘on-contract’ because the government water supply department decides the rate for water tankers and gives them permission to operate.

Q.10. What is special about Porto Alegre?

Ans. Porto Alegre has lowest infant death rate than other cities of the world because of the availability of safe water maintained by city water department.

Q.11. Mention some public facilities that only the government can provide and maintain.

Ans. Roads, railways, sanitation, water supply and electricity are some of the public facilities that only the government can provide and maintain.


Q.1. Why do you think water is essential for everyone?

Ans. It is rightly said that water is life. After air or oxygen, water is the second most essential for life.

1. Clean and safe water can prevent many water related diseases.

2. All birds, animals and human beings need water for biological functions.

Q.2. Why do you think that there are great inequalities in water use?

Ans. We think that there are great inequalities in water uses because the supply of water per person in urban area or town in India should be about 135 liters per day. This is a standard set by Urban Water Commission. On the other hand, people living in slum areas have to do with less than 20 liters a day per person. At the same time people living in luxury hotels may consume as much as 1,600 liters (80 buckets) of water per day.

Q.3. Why was the passing of the responsibility of the water supply to private companies taken back?

Ans. The passing of the responsibility of water supply to private companies was taken back because of the following reasons:

(a) It was found that the private companies raised the price of water abruptly.

(b) The prices were so high that the poor people and people with meagre wages could not afford it.

Q. 4. What do you understand by Universal Access to water?

Ans. Universal Access to water means that every person, rich or poor has the right to sufficient amount of water to meet their daily needs, at a price they can afford.

Q.5. The public facility benefits many people at a time. Discuss it with example.

Ans. Indeed, the public facility benefits many people at a time. For example, a school in a village will allow many children to get educated. In the same way by the supply of electricity to an area the farmers can run pump-sets to irrigate their fields, people can open small workshops that run on electricity, students will get help in their studies.

Q. 6. What is the important characteristic of a public facility?

Ans. Important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people. For instance a school in the village will enable many children to get educated.

Similarly the supply of electricity to an area can be useful for many people.

Q.7. What do you understand by sanitation?

Ans. Sanitation means provision of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. This is done by construction of toilets and pipes to carry sewerage and treatment of waste water.


Q.1. In what areas have the private companies successfully granted public facilities and why?

Ans. The private companies have successfully ventured opening of schools and hospitals. They also provide drinking water through tankers and sealed bottles. They provide all these facilities at a price which upper class people can afford.

Q.2. “Indian courts have done very worthy praise work as far as the right to water is concerned and they have also taken steps to prevent the water- pollution by some companies.” Discuss.

Ans. (a) The Constitution of India recognizes the right to water as being a part of the right to life (Article 21). There have been several court cases in which both the High Courts and the Supreme Court have held that the right to safe drinking water is a Fundamental Right.

(b) For example, in 2007, the Andhra Pradesh High Court restated this (Right to get sufficient safe water) while hearing a case based on a letter written by a villager of Mahabubnagar district on the contamination of drinking water.

(c) The villager’s complaint was that a textile company was discharging poisonous chemicals into a stream near his village, contaminating ground water, which was the source for irrigation and drinking water.

(d) The judges of the High Court of Andhra Pradesh directed the Mahbubnagar district collector to supply 25 liters of water to each person in the village.

Q.3. Describe the Swajaldhara. What role does the government play in it?

Ans. Swajaldhara is a project launched by the government in 2002 to supply clean water to rural households. Here the government plays the role of facilitator (helper) rather than provider. It design, create and manage its drinking water resources. The community shares the cost by making contributions in cash or kind (things needed to dig a well, for example) and is responsible for maintenance. It also takes steps for the conservation of water, for example, recharging groundwater by not allowing rainwater to run off.

Q.4. Illustrate the different spheres for which money is needed by government to provide water supply. How does the government get money for public facilities?

Ans. To provide clean and pure water supply to the public, the government needs money to: 

(i) Maintain costs in pumping water.

(ii) Carrying it over long distances.

(iii) Laying down pipelines for distribution.

(iv) Locating the water for impurities. 

(v) Collecting and treating the waste water.

The government from the various taxes and partly by charging a price for water. The price of water is set so that most people can afford a certain minimum amount of water for daily use.

Q. 5. Why do you think that the government must assume the overall responsibility of public facilities even if it gets private companies to do a part of it?

Ans. Government must assume the overall responsibility of public facilities even if it gets private companies to do a part in it because of the following:

(a) Private companies operate for profit in the market and in most of the public facilities, there is no profit to be had.

(b) Private companies provide public facilities but at a price that only some people can afford. Hence this facility is not available to all at an affordable price. Public facilities relate to people’s basic needs.


Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✔) the correct option 

1. Where is Porto Alegre situated?

(a) U.K.

(b) Brazil.

(c) Spain.

(d) France.

Ans. (b) Brazil.

2. Which organisation arranges toilet facilities?

(a) Sewage.

(b) Sulabh.

(c) BOT.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (b) Sulabh.

3. Which of these is a source of water for household?

(a) Municipal water.

(b) Water tanker.

(c) Private well bore.

(d) All of these.

Ans. (d) All of these.

4. BOT stands for

(a) Build or Transfer.

(b) Build, Operate, Terminal.

(c) Buy, Operate, Transfer.

(d) Build, Operate, Transfer.

Ans. (c) Buy, Operate, Transfer.

5. Which one of the following is a waterborne disease ____________.

(a) Polio.

(b) Tuberculosis.

(c) Dysentery.

(d) Measles.

Ans. (a) Polio.

6. Who provide the public facilities?

(a) The private companies.

(b) The government.

(c) Both (a) and (b).

(d) None of these. 

Ans. (b) The government.

7. Which is the world’s densest railway route?

(a) Kolkata saburban railway.

(b) Mumbai saburban railway. 

(c) Punjab railway.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (b) Mumbai saburban railway.

8. Where does government present the budget?

(a) Rashtrapati Bhawan.

(b) Supreme Court.

(c) Parliament.

(d) High Court.

Ans. (c) Parliament.

9. How much money is spent by Subramanium on buying water?

(a) Rs 1000-1200 per month.

(b) Rs 700-1200 per month.

(c) Rs 400-450 per month.

(d) Rs 500-600 per month.

Ans. (d) Rs 500-600 per month.

10. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

(a) The water supply department in Mumbai raises enough money through water charges to cover its expenses on supplying water.

(b) In Hyderabad, water supply department has increased coverage and improved performance in revenue collection.

(c) In Chennai, the water- supply department has taken several initiatives for harvesting rain-water to increase the level of ground water.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (d) None of these.

11. ___________ grants the right to life in the constitution.

(a) Article 21

(b) Article 24

(c) Article 19

(d) Article 23

Ans. (a) Article 21

12. Sanitation coverage in India is very low, it is only ____________.

(a) 76 per cent.

(b) 66 per cent.

(c) 56 per cent.

(d) 36 per cent.

Ans. (d) 36 per cent.

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

1. There should be ______________ access to water. 

Ans. Universal.

2. Tata Steel is a ______________ company while Indian Oil is a company run by ______________.

Ans. Private government.

3. A special tax for funding a particular service is called a _______________.

Ans. Cess.

4. The mid-day meal scheme aims to improve the ______________ status of school children.

Ans. Nutritional.

5. Private companies operate for ____________ in the market.

Ans. Profit.

6. The responsibility to provide public facilities, must be that of the _____________.

Ans. Government.

7. The burden of shortfalls in water supply falls mostly on the ______________.

Ans. Poor.

8. A ______________ of municipal water is often taken as a sign of failure of the government.

Ans. Shortage.

9. It is government responsibility to provide _____________ to all.

Ans. Public facilities.

10. ________________ is a non-governmental organization.

Ans. Sulabh.


(a). Look at the pictures given below and answer the questions that follow:

Q.1. What is most important form of public transport over short distances?

Ans. Buses are the most important forms of public transport over short distances.

Q.2. What has the government planned as an alternative to bus transport?

Ans. The government has planned ambitious metro rail projects for Delhi and other metropolitan cities.

Q.3. How much money was spent from the government budget for the construction of the first segment of metro rail in Delhi?

Ans. 11000 crore was spent from the government budget for the construction of the first segment of metro rail in Delhi.

Q.4. What negative remarks have been given by the public for such a huge expenditure?

Ans. People have remarked that such a huge expenditure could have been avoided if only a fraction of this amount was spent on upgrading the public bus system.


Q.1. Water as being a part of life. Comment on the statement. 

Ans. (i) The Constitution of India recognizes the right to water as being a part of right to life under Article 21.

(ii) It means that it is a right of every person whether rich or poor, to have sufficient amount of water to fulfill his/her daily needs at affordable prices.

(iii) There should be universal access to water.

Q.2. What are public facilities? Why they are provided by the government?

Ans. Essential facilities provided by the government such as water, health care, sanitation, public transport are called public facilities. They are provided by the government to make the life of the people comfortable.


Q. 1. List the use of electricity. List two ways to conserve it. 

Ans. Supply of electricity to an area can be useful for many people:

(i) Farmers can run their pumpsets to irrigate their fields. 

(ii) People can open small workshops that run on electricity.

(iii) Students will find it easier to study.

Ways to conserve: 

(i) Switch off electricity equipment when no required.

(ii) Go for alternative means for lighting.

Q. 2. How does government raise fund to provide public facilities?

Ans. The main source of income for the government is through the taxes it collects from the citizens. Some of the taxes that the government collects are income tax, property tax, sales tax, water tax, vehicle tax, excise tax etc.

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