NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Confronting Marginalisation

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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Confronting Marginalisation Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Confronting Marginalisation and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Confronting Marginalisation and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.

NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Confronting Marginalisation

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Confronting Marginalisation and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Confronting Marginalisation

Chapter: 20



Q.1. List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals. Re-read the Fundamental Rights listed on page 14 to help you answer this question.

Ans. (a) Right to Equality. and 

(b) Right to Freedom.

Q.2. Re-read the story on Rathnam as well as the provisions of the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Now list one reason why you think he used this law to file a complaint.

Ans. Rathnam sought the support of law, filing his complaint under the Atrocities Act to protest against the domination and violence of the powerful castes in his village. He used this as it was framed in response to demands made by Dalits and others so that the government may take seriously.

Q.3. Why do Adivasi activists including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to believe this?

Ans. Being an Adivasi Activist, C.K. Janu is right in believing that they can use the 1989 Act to fight against dispossession. This is list of actions that dispossess Dalits and Adivasis of their meager resources or which force them into performing labour of slavery. Thus, they can use this Act since it seems to punish anyone who wrongfully occupies or cultivates any land owned by, or allotted to, a member of a scheduled castes or a scheduled tribe or gets the land allotted to him transferred.

Q.4. The poems and the song in this Unit allow you to see the range of ways in which individuals and communities express their opinions, their anger and their sorrow. In class, do the following two exercises:

(a) Bring to class a poem that discusses a social issue. Share this with your classmates. Work in small groups with two or more poems to discuss their meaning as well as what the poet is trying to communicate.

(b) Identify marginalised a community in your locality. Write a poem, or song, or draw a poster etc., to express your feelings as a member of this community.

Ans. For e.g.:

A poem by Soyrabai: (Refers to Page 96 of your text book). (Read the poem and then the Summarized view below).

Soyrabai who herself belongs to the Mahar caste through her esteemed poem questions about the idea or the criterion behind being called a pure person. She argues that every human being is born in the same way and is equal. She cannot understand what makes one body less or more pure than the other. Pollution, a basic idea of casteism should not be the tool for discrimination or to separate or deny people any access to spaces, work, knowledge or dignity. According to her, it does not occur through nature of work but through one’s clear ethnicity and beliefs.



Q.1. When was the Atrocities Act passed?

Ans. 1989.

Q.2. Which Article states abolishment of untouchability? 

Ans. Article 17.

Q.3. Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights (Provided on page 14) and list two rights that this practice violates.

Ans. Right to Freedom, Right to Equality.

Q.4. Which Article states “no discrimination”?

Ans. Article 15.

Q.5. Name a law that protects the rights of marginalised castes and tribes.

Ans. Some laws that protects the rights of marginalized castes and tribes are:

1. Laws against Social Discrimination.

2. Law on Forest Rights. 

3. Law on Manual Scavenging.

Q.6. Name a bhakti saint who criticized casteism.

Ans. Kabir.

Q.7. In your opinion does the force put on Rathnam to perform the ritual violate his fundamental right?

Ans. Yes, in our opinion being forced to carry out such a task in which the person has no belief is a violation of fundamental right. Right to freedom and right to equality are rights that are violated.

Q.8. What is the literal meaning of Dalit? 

Ans. The term ‘Dalit’ literally means broken.

Q.9. Name a policy that promotes justice among marginalised groups. 

Ans. Reservation.


Q.1. What did the Supreme Court do on hearing their case in 2005?

Ans. The court observed that the number of manual scavengers in India had increased since the 1993 law. It directed every department/ministry of the union and the state governments to verify the fact within six months. If manual scavenging was found to exist, then the government department has to actively take up a time bound programme for their liberation and rehabilitation.

Q.2. According to C.K. Janu, how do governments violate the rights of tribal people?

Ans. C.K, Janu is an Adivasi activist. According to her the government is the real violator of the rights of tribal people in the various states of India because of the following points:

(a) It is the government who allowed non tribal encroachers in the form of timber merchants paper mills etc., to exploit tribal land.

(b) Government forcibly evicted the tribal people from their traditional houselands i.e. forests in the process of declaring forest as reserved or as sanctuaries.

Q.3. Define Reservation.

Ans. Reservation is the securing of seats by law in education and government jobs, especially for Dalits and Adivasis or those who seem to be deprived and underprivileged. 

Q.4. Who is a manual scavenger? 

Ans. A manual scavenger is a person who does the inhuman job of manual scavenging.

Q.5. What does the SCs and STs Act, 1989 state about women?

Ans. According to this Act, a person shall be penalised if he assaults or uses force on any woman belonging to a scheduled caste or scheduled tribe with intext to dishonor her.

Q.6. What does Article 15 of the Constitution state?

Ans. The Article 15 of the Constitution states that no person can be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or a place of birth.

Q.7. Why does the act contain a long list of crimes?

Ans. Adivasis and Dalits organized themselves and demanded equal rights and for their land and resources to be returned to them. This is why they have a long list of crimes.

Q.8. State one reason why you think reservation plays an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis.

Ans. The law of reservation to Dalits and Adivasis is based on a simple argument that in a society like ours, where for centuries, sections of population have been denied opportunities to learn and to work in order to develop new skills or vocation, a democratic government thus needed to step in and assist, these socially or economically backward sections.

Q. 9. What are the ways in which marginalised communities tried to overcome the discriminations they faced?

Ans. Marginalised communities tried to overcome their discriminations through various ways such as:

(a) Religious solace.

(b) Economic progress.

(c) Self improvement.

(d) Education. 

(e) Armed struggle.

Q. 10. Why was the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Act, 1989 framed?

Ans. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Act 1989, was framed in response to the demands made by dalits and other groups. They wanted the government to stop the ill treatment and humiliation dalits and tribal groups face everyday.

Q. 11. List two provisions of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes Act 1989.

Ans. Two provisions of 1989 act are:

(a) Adivasis have the right to occupy land that was traditionally theirs. 

(b) Land belonging to tribal people cannot be sold or bought by non tribal people.


Q.1. Explain the misery of a manual scavenger. 

Ans. A manual scavenger goes through the following hardships: 

(a) Manual scavengers are exposed to sub human conditions of work and face serious health hazards.

(b) They are constantly exposed to infections that affect their eyes, skin, respiratory and gastro intestinal systems.

(c) They get very low wages to the work they perform.

Q. 2. How does the reservation policy works? 

Ans. Reservation policy works in the following manner: 

(a) Students applying to educational institutions are expected to furnish proof of their caste or tribe status, in the form of caste and tribe certificates.

(b) Governments across India have their own list of Scheduled Castes (Dalits), Scheduled tribes, backward and most backward castes. If a particular dalit caste or a certain tribe is on the government list, then that person can avail the benefits of reservation.

Q.3. Mention a few crimes listed in the Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989. 

Ans. Few crimes listed in the prevention of Atrocities Act 1989 are as follows:

(i) Firstly, it lists modes of humiliation that are both physically horrific and morally reprehensible and seeks to punish those who: 

(a) Force a member of SC/ST to drink or eat any inedible or obnoxious substance. 

(b) Forcibly removes clothes from the person of a member of SC/ST or parades him or her naked or with painted face or body or commits any similar act which is derogatory to human dignity.

(ii) Secondly, it lists actions that disposes dalits and adivasis of their meager resources or which force them into performing slave labour.

(iii) Thirdly, the act recognizes that crimes against dalit and tribal women are of specific kind and therefore seeks to penalise anyone who:

(a) assaults or uses force on any woman belonging to scheduled caste or a scheduled tribe with intent to dishonour her.


Q.1. How does constitution ensure cultural justice to minority groups? 

Ans. To ensure cultural justice to minority groups, cultural rights like:

(a) Right to freedom of Religion 

(b) Cultural and Educational Rights have been given.

Q.2. Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PIL in 2003? What did they complain about in their petition?

Ans. In 2003, the Safai Karamchari Andolan and 13 other organizations including, seven manual scavengers filed a PIL in the Supreme Court. The petitioners complained that manual scavenging still existed and it continued in government undertaking like the railways. The petitioners sought their Fundamental Rights.

Q.3. Mention the laws which have been passed by the government to protect the rights of marginalised castes and tribes.

Ans. Following laws have been passed by the government to protect the rights of marginalised castes and tribes:

(a) Article 17: of the constitution states that untouchability has been abolished. This means that no one can hence forth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc.

(b) Article 15: of the constitution states that no citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, caste, sex, race or place of birth.

(c) In the case of cultural and educational rights: distinct cultural and religious groups like the Muslims and Parsis have the right to be the guardians of the content of their culture as well as the right to make decisions on how best this content is to be preserved.

(d) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Act 1989: was passed to prevent the ill treatment and humiliation dalits and tribal groups faced.


Q. What steps have been taken by the government to improve condition of women?

Ans. Steps taken by the government to improve the condition of women:

(i) The Constitution of India has banned the exploitation of women. Working hours has been fixed for them in jobs.

(ii) Certain laws have been passed to improve their condition. 

Some important laws are:

(a) Dowry is made illegal. 

(b) Custom of polygamy was made illegal.

(iii) Adult education centers have been also opened for women who have not received education.


Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✔) the correct option

1. Which caste did Soyrabai belong to?

(a) Gonds tribe group.

(b) Mahar castes.

(c) Any of the above.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (b) Mahar castes.

2. C.K. Janu is known as ______________.

(a) An engineer.

(b) A doctor.

(c) An archaeologist.

(d) An activist.

Ans. (d) An activist.

3. By whom reservation cannot avail?

(a) Brahmans.

(c) Adivasis.

(b) Dalits.

(d) Backward and most backward castes.

Ans. (a) Brahmans.

4. SI and other traditional Forest Dwellers Act was passed in:

(a) 2005

(b) 2003

(c) 2006

(d) 2000

Ans. (c) 2006

5. ‘Untouchability is the highest state of knowledge.’ Who quoted this?

(a) Rahim.

(b) Soyarabai.

(c) C.K. Janu.

(d) Kabir.

Ans. (d) Kabir.

6. Name a female Adivasi activists: 

(a) Kabir Ji.

(b) C.K. Janu.

(c) Soyarabai.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (b) C.K. Janu.

7. In an examination, if given below are indications of status, which of the following is not marginalised?

(a) General.

(b) Scheduled Castes.

(c) Scheduled Tribes.

(d) Adivasis.

Ans. (a) General.

8. Employment of manual scavengers and Construction of Dry Catherines (Prohibition) Act was passed in:

(a) 1989

(b) 1990

(c) 1889 

(d) 1993

Ans. (d) 1993

9. To exclude or banish an individual is:

(a) Ostracise.

(b) Confront.

(c) Reluctant.

(d) Assertive.

Ans. (a) Ostracise.

10. During which period did ill treatment of Dalits gathers violent character?

(a) 1780s-1790s

(b) 1970s-1980s

(c) 1st century

(d) During British rule.

Ans. (b) 1970s-1980s

11. Which of the following is a step to promote social justice?

(a) Manual Scavenging.

(b) Reservation.

(c) Untouchability.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (b) Reservation.

12. The name Harijan was given to untouchables by _____________.

(b) Kabir.

(a) Swami Vivekanand.

(c) Chaitanya.

(d) Mahatma Gandhi.

Ans. (d) Mahatma Gandhi.

13. Sulabh International is an NGO working in the field of _____________.

(a) Health.

(b) Education.

(c) Sanitation.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (c) Sanitation.

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

1. Article 15 states right to _____________.

Ans. Equality.

2. The ____________ were not allowed to enter in temples.

Ans. Shudras.

3. ______________ and ______________ are the specific for the marginalised in our country.

Ans. Laws, Policies.

4. An ______________ person or a group is one of that can express themselves and their views strongly.

Ans. Assertive.

5. Article ______________ states abolishment of untouchability. 

Ans. 17

6. Rathnam went to file a case under the prevention of _____________ Act. 

Ans. Atrocities.

7. Adivasi activists refer to this to defend their right to occupy _____________.

Ans. Land.

8. The tribals are also known as _____________.

Ans. Adivasis.


Q.I. Look at the picture below and Complete the sentences:

The (a) _________ government passed the Scheduled Tribes and other (b) ____________ Forest Dwellers Act in (c) _____________ The introduction states that it shall undo (d) ____________ injustices. The Act also points out that the right to forest dwellers include conservation of (e) ___________ and (f) ____________.

Ans. (a) Central.

(b) Traditional.

(c) 2006

(d) historical.

(e) forests.

(f) biodiversity.

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