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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Understanding Marginalisation
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Understanding Marginalisation and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE – III [CIVICS]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.
Ans. ‘Marginalisation’ is a social process by which certain sections of the society are confined to lower social standing. It results to certain minority (such as Muslims) or Dalits (Particularly among the Hindus) in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources.
Q.2. List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Ans. Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised because:
(i) They are radically different from communities organized around the principle of jati-varna (castes).
(ii) Their way of life is quite different from the majority of people. They wear colourful costumes, strange type of head gears and have different cultures. They like to like in seclusion.
Q.3. Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important.
Ans. The Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important because the Constitution of our country is the supreme book of laws and regulations. It provides safeguards to religious ethnic and linguistic minorities as a part of our fundamental rights. Every citizen has a right to access to the Apex Court of the country. These provisions aim to achieve communal harmony, national integrity and uniform development.
Q.4. Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Ans. Our Constitution does not define the word ‘minority’ in detail.
Minorities, whether religious or lingual are those who have less number of people of their own sect and religion in a particular region.
Q.5. You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement:
‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
Ans. Muslims are marginalised community because:
(i) 63.6%. of the Muslims live in Kuccha houses.
On the other hand, the people of majority, i.e, the Hindus live in 55.2% in Kuccha houses.
(ii) Only 30% of Muslims have access to electricity while 43.2% of the Hindus have access to it.
(iii) Piped water is second basic amenity (after pure air) for everyone. But only 19.4% of Muslims have access to piped water. On the other hand, 25.3% of Hindus have access to it.
(iv) Literacy rates by religion wise are lowest for the Muslims according to 2001 survey.
Q.6. Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time.”
List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
Ans. (1) Adivasis led excluded life in different hilly and forest areas of India till middle of the nineteenth century or the dawn of British imperialism in India.
(ii) Adivasis are not a homogeneous population. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in our country. They are particularly numerous in states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and in the north- eastern states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
(iii) Adivasis practise ancestor worship and believes in all types of supernatural spirits like the primitive men.
Q.7. In the story board you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Ans. The story runs like this:
(a) A foreign company has planned to establish a metal company in area of Adivasis. They are forced to move in very large number to various area of India. A man and his girl friend decide to make an association. They approach to district authority, state Government and lastly to central government.
(b) Under their leadership, the Adivasis demand three things forest, water and livelihood. After a long struggle, Human Rights Commission comes forward and their demands are accepted. They are handed over fairly large forest-lands, supply of water and they are given employment in companies and some newly started small scale industries etc.
Q.8. Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Ans. The different reports about the marginalisation point out that economic and social marginalisation are inter linked.
(i) In terms of occupation, houses, piped water, Muslims lag behind many other religious groups.
((ii) Most of the Muslims work in unorganised sector and have lower living standards than Hindus as a whole. Because of lack of education, they find it difficult to get both public as well as private sector jobs.
(iii) Since they are economically backward, they fail to attain a higher status in Indian society. Thus, economic and social marginalisation are interdependent.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Comment on the life style of Adivasis in the precolonial world.
Ans. In the pre-colonial world, they were traditionally ranged hunter-gatherers and nomads and lived by shifting agriculture and cultivating in one place.
Q.2. Who are Scheduled Tribes?
Ans. The groups which were socially discarded and were economically backward, mostly residing in tribal areas are known as Scheduled Tribes.
Q.3. The Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important. Why?
Ans. The Constitution safeguards to protect minority communities are important because they are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population and therefore they may be dominated by the majority communities.
Q.4. Give an example of hierarchy of people.
Ans. The caste system is a hierarchy system and Dalits are considered to be at the lowest end.
Q.5. Write one negative result of marginalisation.
Ans. Marginalisation results in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources.
Q.6. Why does ‘ghettoised’ community become alienated from the rest of the society?
Ans. A ghettoised community becomes alienated from the rest of the society because it has few options of moving out.
Q.7. Who are the Dalits or Scheduled Castes?
Ans. The castes which were formerly treated as untouchables in the society are called the Dalits or scheduled castes.
Q.8. Mention any five Indian states that have large populations of Adivasis.
Ans. Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and North-Eastern States are the large populated regions of Adivasis.
Q.9. Why have Adivasis been forced to migrate?
Ans. Adivasis have been forced to migrate to live as workers in plantations, at construction sites, in industries and as domestic workers.
Q.10. What is the general belief about the Adivasis?
Ans. It is the general belief of the people that Adivasis are exotic, primitive and backward.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What are different ways in which Adivasis are stereotyped?
Ans. Different ways in which Adivasis are stereotyped are as follows:
(a) During school functions or other official events or in books and movies, Adivasis are invariably portrayed in very stereotypical ways-in colorful costumes, headgear and through their dancing.
(b) Often, Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.
Q.2. Why is it important that Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used?
Ans. (a) Adivasis use around 10,000 plant species-8,000 are used for medicinal purposes, 325 as pesticides, 425 as gums, resins and dyes, 550 as fibers. They can use this knowledge only if they have say in the use of forests and forest lands.
(b) Adivasis are children of forests. If they lose their say in forest land, they lose their traditions and customs.
Q.3. Describe the Shifting cultivation.
Ans. By the Pre-British time Adivasis have inhabited, fishing and gathering forest products. The cultivators among them mostly practised (many still do) shifting cultivation, in which a forest area is cleared, cultivators cultivated for a few years and then left to be regenerated by natural processes.
Q.4. What does it mean to be socially marginalised? Give two examples.
Ans. To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things. For examples: If you are not like most of the students in your class, that is in sports, music or academics; the chances are that you will not be considered to be ‘in’ by your peers.
Q.5. What metals are important in present day India? Why are they important? Where do they come from?
Ans. (a) Metals like iron and steel, copper, gold, silver, manganese etc. are important in present day India.
(b) These, metals are important for industrial development, to complete different types of development projects, for construction of bridges, building, dams etc.
(c) These metals generally come from remote tribal areas like Chhotanagpur plateau region of India.
Q. 6. Explain atleast three reasons why groups may be marginalised.
Ans. Three reasons for which a group may be marginalised are:
(a) Speaking a different language.
(b) Following different customs or belonging to a different religious group other than the majority.
(c) Being considered of low statusand poor by the majority.
Q. 7. Who are adivasis? Why are they called backward or exotic?
Ans. The term Adivasis literally means ‘Original inhabitants’. These are communities who lived and often continue to live, in close association with forests.
Often Adivasis are wrongly called exotic or backward because some people think that Adivasis are reluctant to modern advancements, economic developments etc. and also resist to changes and new ideas.
Q. 8. What is Ghettoisation?
Ans. Ghetto is a locality which is populated largely by members of a particular community. Ghettoisation is the process that leads to such a situation. This may happen due to many social, cultural and economic reasons including a sense of fear and hostility. Such a ghettoized community is often seen as socially isolated community from the rest of the society.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Adivasis are loosing their rights over forest lands. How has this affected their livelihood?
Ans. Loosing their lands and access to the forest has affected the lives of the adivasis in the following manner:
(a) Having lost access to their traditional homelands, many adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites.
(b) They often get caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation.
(c) They loose their traditions and customs.
(d) Because of loosing lands, many tribal children are malnutritioned. Literacy rates among tribals are also very low.
Q.2. How have the forests been important for life and development of Adivasis?
Ans. Forests have been very important for life and development of Adivasis.
(i) Metal ores like iron and copper, gold and silver, coal and diamonds, invaluable timber, most medicinal herbs and animal products and animal themselves all came from forests.
(ii) The continuation of life depended heavily on forests, that help recharge many of India’s rivers.
(iii) Forests covered the major part of our country till the nineteenth century.
Q.4. What do you understand by social inequality? Describe how is social inequality different from economic inequality?
Ans. Social inequality refers to a situation in which individual groups in a society do not have equal social status. The areas of potential social inequality include voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, the extent of property rights and access to education, health care, housing and other goods.
Social inequality is different from economic inequality though both are linked. Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income. While economic inequality is caused by the unequal accumulation of wealth, social inequality exists because the lack of wealth in certain areas prohibits these people from obtaining the same housing, health care, etc. as the wealthy in societies where access to these social goods depends on wealth.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. In your opinion, why is it important that Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used?
Ans. Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forests lands are used because:
(a) Forests are the original source of their income.
(b) When they are displaced from their forests they would loose the means of livelihood, deprived of their traditional customs, the farming land and even their cremation ground.
Q.2. What do you understand by the term ‘ghetto’?
Ans. Marginalised communities face social disinclusion, mistrust, ridicule and hostility. This sometimes drives them to close themselves off in small pockets or localities where they feel secure among members of their own community. Such pockets (in urban areas) which are inhabited mostly by members of a (usually of minority) community are called ghettos.
Q. 3. Give reasons as to why Muslims are treated as a marginalised community.
Ans. Muslims are often treated as a marginalised community because of the following reasons:
(a) Muslims are considered to be a marginalised community in India today because, in comparison to other communities, they have over the years been deprived of the benefits of socio-economic development.
(b) According to a report, the average years of schooling for Muslim children between the ages of 7-16 is much lower than that of other socio-religious communities.
(c) Like other minorities, Muslim customs and practises are sometimes quite distinct from what it is seen as the main stream. Some not all Muslims may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez and these become ways to identify all Muslims.
Because of this, they tend to be identified or marginalised.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. Why do we need safeguards for minorities?
Ans. We need safeguards for minorities as:
(a) Safeguards are required to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the minority.
(b) They also need protection to safeguard them against any discrimination and disadvantage that they may face.
The Constitution of India provides these safeguards because it is committed to protecting India’s cultural diversity and promoting equality as well as justice.
Q.2. What did the marginal groups rely on to protect themselves from continued exploitation by other groups?
Ans. Marginal groups relied on the constitution and the judiciary system to protect them from continued exploitation by other groups.
Q.3. Mention some of the religious practises followed by Adivasis.
Ans. Religious practices followed by Adivasis are as follows:
(a) They practice a range of tribal religions that are different from Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. These often involve the worship of ancestors, village and nature spirits.
(b) Adivasis have always been influenced by different surrounding religions like Shakta, Buddhist, Vaishnav, Bhakti and Christianity.
(c) Adivasi religions have influenced dominant religions of the empire around them, for example, the Jagannath cult of Orissa and Shakti and Tantric traditions in Bengal and Assam.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct option
1. ____________ addressed Harijans as ‘Children of God’.
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi.
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai.
(d) Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel.
Ans. (b) Mahatma Gandhi.
2. Jagannath Cult belongs to _____________.
Ans. (a) Orissa.
3. Where do Adivasis live?
(b) Kuccha Houses.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (a) Forest.
4. The condition when minorities are forced to live on the margins of economic and social development is known as:
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
5. Where do Adivasis came from?
(a) Western U.P.
(b) Chhotanagpur Plateau.
Ans. (b) Chhotanagpur Plateau.
6. The constitution forbids the practice of untouchability in
(a) Article 16
(b) Article 18
(c) Article 17
(d) Article 19
Ans. (c) Article 17
7. Around ____________ percent of India’s population is Adivasis.
Ans. (b) 8
8. The image of Adivasis is today taken as:
(a) Strong communities.
(b) Politically powerful communities.
(c) Marginal and powerless communities.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) Marginal and powerless communities.
9. The first Backward classes Commission was set up on _____________.
(a) January 24, 1953
(b) January 25, 1953
(c) January 24, 1953
(d) January 29, 1953
Ans. (d) January 29, 1953
10. _____________ reservation recommended by the Sachar Committee.
(a) Scheduled Castes.
(b) Scheduled Tribes.
Ans. (c) Muslims.
11. The Prevention of Atrocities Act _____________ prevents atrocities against Scheduled Castes.
Ans. (c) 1989
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. _____________ women are an important part of the women’s movement in India.
2. In a society, the small groups that are different because of their race, religion, language, etc., are called _____________.
3. The term ____________ is now used in place of the term untouchable.
4. The ______________ Commission proposed the reservation of 27% of seats and jobs for OBCs.
5. CK Janu is a ______________ activist.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. Look at the pictures and answer the questions that follows.
1. What do the two pictures reflect?
Ans. The two pictures reflect the traditional dresses and life-style of Adivasis.
2. What image do we get about Adivasis from the pictures?
Ans. We came to know that Adivasis were ‘exotic’ and ‘backward’.
Q.2. Look at the given picture of Niyamgiri Hill and answer the questions that follows:
1. Where is Niyamgiri Hill located?
Ans. Niyamgiri Hil is located in Kalahandi district of Orissa.
2. Name the Adivasi community which inhabits this area.
Ans. Dongarria Konds.
3. Why is Adivasi community endangered to be displaced from here?
Ans. Adivasi community is endangered to be displaced from here because a major aluminium company is planning to set-up a mine and a refinery here.
4. What action has been taken by Adivasi community against it?
Ans. Adivasi people have strongly resisted this proposed development and have been joined by environmentalists as well. A case against the company is also pending in Supreme Court.