NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Social Movements

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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Social Movements

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Social Movements Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 14

PART – II: SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS ANSWERS

1. Imagine a society where there has been no social movement. Discuss. You can also describe how you imagine such a society to be.

Ans: Imagination is a situation far away from reality. I have been asked to imagine a society where there has been no social movement. 

I imagine such society of the following kind of set-up:

(i) I imagine a very progressive society. People all living in a very peaceful, cooperative and harmonious social atmosphere. People are having a family of six-seven persons in all. Grandfather, Grandmother, a couple and their two or three children in a house. This family is not having any domestic help or servant. All members accept dignity of labour and like to do their own work themselves. There is a self-discipline. Elders like that their youngers and youngsters should regard their elders and serve them whenever they feel to provide help or co-operation to elderly members of the family.

(ii) I have described such type of society to give a reasonably model type of society which is needed by our country. We should do our work, we should love our country, our neighbour, our religion but did not hole religion of other people or fast and ritual of other people.

(iii) The family has three sleeping room and one common room. In common room they are having a TV, Radio, Dining Table, Sofa and Central Table along with book Almirah.

(iv) There is an MTNL telephone. All members of the family take there meal together at least one time in a day. Grandmother and grandfather live at home both are government servants, daughter lines at home, children go to school for study and the father of the children goes to market. He is a clock merchants.

2. Write short notes on: 

(i) Women’s Movement.

Ans: In the 19th century, British rule started to take over the Indian subcontinent. Our country went through a bunch of social, economical, and cultural transformations. Indians were exposed to western values and ideas. Inspired by the English view, social revolutions began which were aimed at eliminating social aberrations like sati, illiteracy, purdah system, etc. These were major obstacles in the path of women’s progression and an idea was adopted that a society cannot progress unless all its members equally contribute to its progression. 

Leaders like Savitribai Phule, Swarnakumari Devi, and Rassundari Devi contributed immensely during this time period to bring forth the plights of women and worked towards solving them. Savitribai Phule is a woman worth mentioning here. Referred to as the first female teacher of India, she belonged to a lower caste and worked tirelessly with her husband to end caste and gender-based discrimination. She educated women, raised her voice against violence against women, and evil social practices.

The early 20th century saw the growth of women’s organisations at the national and the local level. The Women’s India Association (WIA) (1917), All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926) and National Council for Women in India (NCWI) (1925) are ready names of organisations that we can mention. While many of them began with a limited focus, their scope extended over time. For instance, the AIWC began with the idea that ‘women’s welfare’ and ‘politics’ were mutually exclusive.

(ii) Tribal Movements.

Ans: Different tribal groups spread across the country may share common issues. But the distinctions between them are equally significant. Many of the tribal movements have been largely located in the so called ‘tribal belt’ in middle India, such as the Santhals, Hos, Oraons, Mundas in Chota Nagpur and the Santhal Parganas. The region constitutes the main part of what has come to be called Jharkhand. We will not be able to go into any detailed account of the different movements. We take Jharkhand as an example of a tribal movement with a history that goes back a hundred years. We also briefly touch on the specificity of the tribal movements in the North East but fail to deal comprehensively the many differences that exist between one tribal movement and another within the region.

One of the key issues that bind tribal movements from different parts of the country is the alienation of tribals from forest lands. In this sense ecological issues are central to tribal movements. Just as cultural issues of identity and economic issues such as, inequality, are. This brings us back to the question about the blurring of old and new social movements in India They documented and disseminated information about tribal customs and cultural practices. This helped create a unified ethnic consciousness and a shared identity as Jharkhandis

3. In India it is difficult to make a clear distinction between the old and new social movements. Discuss.

Ans: Old Social Movements:

(i) Class based united to fight for rights.

(ii) Nationalist movement united people into national e.g., liberation struggle.

(iii) Role of political parties was central and poor people had no other effective means to get their voices heard.

(iv) Mainly concerned with struggles between haves and havenots. Key issue is reorganisation of power relations, i.e. capturing power & transferring it from powerful to powerless, e.g. Workers were mobilised towards capitalists; Women’s struggle against male domination.

(v) Nationalist movement mobilised against rule of foreign power and dominance of foreign capital.

(vi) Concerned about social inequality and unequal distribution of resources -important elements.

New Social Movement:

(i) Women’s movement, environmental movement.

(ii) Decades after the Second World War- 1960s and early 1970s.

(iii) No longer focus on redistribution of power rather are more concerned with improving the quality of life. eg. Right to education, clean environment.

(iv) Globalisation – reshaping people’s lines, culture, media Firms – transnational. Legal arrangements – international.

(v) Black powers movement led by Malcolm X.

(vi) No longer confine themselves within political parties. Instead started joining civil society movements and forming NGOs because they are supposed to be more efficient, less corrupt and less autocratic.

4. Environmental movements often also contain economic and identity issues. Discuss.

Ans: Environmental movements often intertwine with economic and identity issues. For example, the Chipko movement in India’s Himalayan foothills combined ecological concerns with economic and identity issues. The villagers involved in the movement collaborated to protect the forests near their villages, raising issues such as: Economic sustainability, Social inequality, Government representing industrial and imperialist interests, and Cutting down forests for profit.

Identity and the environment:

(i) Silent Valley Movement: Villagers perceived a close link between their identity and the forest, and saw the denuding of the mountain slopes by commercial interests as victimisation.

(ii) Scientists’ identities: Scientists’ identities can shape their engagement with environmental activism. 

Economic and environmental issues:

(i) Environmental economics: A sub-field of economics that studies the economic effects of environmental issues, including the cost of losing public goods like clean air.

(ii) Sustainable development: A stated goal of government and industry since the 1980s, but adapting and responding to these demands has been a challenge.

5. Distinguish between peasant and New Farmer’s movements.

Ans: Peasant Movements: Peasant movements or agrarian struggles have taken place from pre-colonial days. The movements in the period between 1858 and 1914 tended to remain localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. Well-known are the Bengal revolt of 1859-62 against the indigo plantation system and the ‘Deccan riots’ of 1857 against moneylenders. Some of these issues continued into the following period, and under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi became partially linked to the Independence movement. For instance, the Bardoli Satyagraha (1928, Surat District) a ‘non-tax’ campaign as part of the nationwide non-cooperation movement, a campaign of refusal to pay land revenue and the Champaran Satyagraha (1917–18) directed against indigo plantations. In the 1920s, protest movements against the forest policies of the British government and local rulers arose in certain regions.

Between 1920 and 1940 peasant organisations arose. The first organisation to be founded was the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (1929), and in 1936 the All India Kisan Sabha. The peasants organised by the Sabhas demanded freedom from economic exploitation for peasants, workers and all other exploited classes. At the time of Independence, we had the two most classical cases of peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946–47) and the Telangana movement (1946–51).

New Farmer’s Movements: New farmer’s movements began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. These movements were regionally organised, were non-party, and involved farmers rather than peasants (farmers are said to be market-involved as both commodity producers and purchasers). The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and anti-urban. The focus of demand were ‘price and related issues’ (for example, price procurement, remunerative prices, prices for agricultural inputs, taxation, non-repayment of loans). Novel methods of agitation were used: blocking of roads and railways, refusing politicians’ and bureaucrats’ entry to villages, and so on. It has been argued that the farmers’ movements have broadened their agenda and ideology and include environment and women’s issues. 

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