NCERT Class 12 Political Science Chapter 16 Indian Politics: Trends and Developments

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NCERT Class 12 Political Science Chapter 16 Indian Politics: Trends and Developments

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Chapter: 16

POLITICAL SCIENCE

PART – II: CHALLENGES OF NATION BUILDING

TEXTBOOK QUESTION ANSWER

Q. 1. Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni …… and arrange the file chronologically.

(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.

(b) Formation of the Janta Dal.

(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid.

(d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi.

(e) The formation of NDA government.

(f) Godhra incident and its fallout.

(g) Formation of the UPA government.

Ans. 1. (d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi.

2. (b) Formation of the Janta Dal.

3. (a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.

4. (c) The demolition of Babri Masjid.

5. (e) The formation of NDA government.

6. (f) Godhra incident and its fallout.

7. (g) Formation of the UPA government.

Q. 2. Match the following:

(a) Politics of consensus(i) Shah Bano Case
(a) Politics of consensus(ii) Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justice(iii) Coalition government
(d) Growing strength of regional parties(iv) Agreement on economic policies

Ans. 

(a) Politics of consensus(iv) Agreement on economic policies
(a) Politics of consensus(ii) Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justice(i) Shah Bano Case
(d) Growing strength of regional parties(iii) Coalition government

Q. 3. State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?

Ans. (a) The main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989 were as given below:

(i) Rise of Other Backward Classes as political force.

(ii) Rise of politics based on religious identity and debate about secularism and democracy.

(iii) Demolition of Babri Masjid.

(iv) Anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat.

(v) Decision of the National Front government to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission and subsequent stir.

(vi) End of Congress dominance and beginning of era of colition politics.

(b) These issues led to different configurations of Political parties as mentioned below:

(i) Political parties accepted the political and social claims of the backward castes. All political parties began to support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment.

(ii) This gave rise to an era of coalition politics, coalition governments were formed i.e., National front in 1989, the United Front in 1996 and 1997 the NDA in 1997, BJP led coalition in 1998, NDA in 1999 and the UPA in 2004 and 2009.

Q. 4. “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or re-aligning on the basis of ideology”. What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?

Or

“After the elections in 1989, an era of coalition started in which political parties are not aligning or re-aligning on the basis of ideologies.” Explain.

Or

“In the new are of coalition politics, Political partoes are not aligning on the basis of ideology”. Explan.

Ans. The BJP led alliance itself moves from one crisis to another demonstrating a perpetual sense of instability. The government, survived since the national opposition is not yet prepared to force a change. Moreover, A.B. Vajpayee’s stature grew to a new height, he enjoyed the reputation of a national leader who has the charisma and power to guide the country to prosperity and stability. But the feeling of an effective government is not there; not in the people. As we saw in the elections (March 2004), that in spite of the BJP’s propaganda machine in full throttle i.e., India shining campaign and the India emerging global power, the voters did not vote it back to power.

The NDA coalition government headed by the BJP stalwart Atal Bihari Vajpayee decided to dissolve the eighth Lok Sabha, earlier than scheduled. The NDA front has expected a windfall in the wake of India shining campaign and misconceived conception of all around happiness.

On February 29, 2004, the Election Commission announced that elections for the 14th Lok Sabha will be held in four phases. 

The mammoth task of voting took place in four rounds and it got completed on 10th May. It was the simple assumption of the ruling alliance BJP+Allies (Shiv Sena, JD(U), SAD, BJD, Trinamool, AIADMK, TDP) that it will win without any hindrances.

But the result sprung a major surprise. Contrary to all expectations, Congress on its own won 145 seats as compared to BJP’s 138. But numbers after hide complex realities. In this case the seven-seat difference has changed the political colour of India. In a stunning reversal of fortunes, the Congress is back after eight years.

The “Congressisation of the peace” and the bid to create an alternative saffron core in Indian politics has fallen by the roadside. The battle strategy of the BJP was towards fold-occupy the core as the single largest party and form strategic alliances at the periphery. In 1996, the BJP first adopted this core-periphery strategy by trying to get to the Centre with 161 seats, but it failed to strike alliances in the periphery. By 1998, the BJP had made it work with 182 seats at the core and perfected it by 1999 with the same number of seats but 24 alliances.

The Congress, though sidelined for eight years, under the leadership of Smt. Sonia Gandhi won 145 seats, thus it revived 31 seats which it lost in 1991.

But this time electorate’s verdict was clear. It voted the Congress and its allies to power. Therefore Congress was in power with Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister and its allies were RJD, NCP, DMK, PMK, MDMK, TRS, JMM, LJSP, JKPDP with the Left Front and Samajwadi Party giving Congress support from outside.

Q. 5. Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.

Or

Write a short essay on Bhartiya Janta Party.

Ans. The Bhartiya Janta Party: The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) was formally launched as an independent political organisation in February 1980, after split of the Janta Party on the R.S.S. issue. Most of the erstwhile Jana Sangh members along with a few others, left the Janta Party to form the BJP. Thus the BJP is a reincarnation of the Jana Sangh, the militant Hindu nationalist party founded in 1951 by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee. The object of the Jana Sangh was the rebuilding of Bharat as a modern, democratic society in accordance with religious precepts. The party adopted four fundamentals; one country, one nation, one culture and a rule of law that would determine its future course of action. Secularism for the Jana Sangh, was simply a disguised policy of Muslim appeasement. The Sangh did not recognise the partition of India and supported foreign policy of non-involvement. It wanted a united India under a unitary state, with Hindi as the national language. It has been closely associated with the R.S.S. Indeed, Nehru described the party as its illegitimate child.

Most of the Jana Sangh’s support came from the Hindi speaking states of north India, it remained essentially a party of the urban educated Hindu middle classes-professionals, small businessmen, and white-collar workers. The Jana Sangh’s experience as a unit of the Janta Party, its administrative experience in national government and its close association with Jaya Prakash Narayan all seem to have brought about considerable transformation of its ideologies.

Ideology and Programme:

The BJP believes in Gandhian socialism. The party says that its ideology is inspired not only by Gandhi and JP but also by Deendayal Upadhyaya. It stands for positive socialism and clean government. While laying emphasis on the “Hindu idiom” in its poll manifesto, the party stands for justice for all and appeasement of none. The party would continue the policy of reservations for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, apply the same policy to the backward castes broadly in line with the recommendations of the Mandal Commission. The party would also provide reservations for other weaker sections on the basis of their eco-condition. In the economic arena the party favours writing off the debts of farmers, labourers and artisans. The party also favours smaller and stronger states, desires to abolish Article 370, favours in uniform civil code and would like to establish Human Rights Commission.

BJP-RSS Relationship:

The Jana Sangh has been closely associated with the RSS. The RSS as ved as the organisational base for the party. The BJP being its successor, what type of relationship it has with the RSS? The official stand of the BJP and the RSS is that these are two separate organisations working in two different fields. Besides, they do not interfere in each-other’s work. But an overwhelming majority of the BJP workers have RSS background, therefore a large number of people think that the two organisations belong to the one and same family. Even the BJP has reaffirmed its RSS link. It sees this link as vital to its newly emphasised commitment to national unity since it believes that the RSS’s patriotism is unmatched. It is, in fact proud of its link with RSS.

The BJP is now being viewed as an alternative to the centrist parties that have so far had a monopoly on power. The BJP has achieved this status because of its strong organisation and distinct identity. As a cadre-based party guided by a distinct ideology, the BJP has certain inbuilt advantages. It can work towards consolidating its electoral gains, and does not necessarily have to depend on waves and winds everytime it faces an election.

Q. 6. In spite of the decline of Congress dominance the Congress Party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Ans. Yes, we are agree with this statement because:

The defeat of Congress Party in 1989 elections marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. But again in 1991 elections Congress form the government at centre under Prime Ministership of P.V. Narsimha Rao. After that due to misgovernance of Rao popularity of Congress was declined. Advantages from political situation NDA form the Government at centre in 1998-99.

In 2004 elections, NDA’s “India Shinning” proved a flop show. Once again Congress led UPA form the government at centre. Same story was repeated in 2009 elections. Now-a-days Congress and UPA ruling the country. In the light of above ups and down, we say that even today Congress dominate the country’s politics.

Q. 7. Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has?

Ans. The two party system is successful as it would be obvious from the following points:

(i) A Definite Party is Responsible for the Drawbacks of Government: Two party system has the merit that if there are some drawbacks in administration or some problem is not solved in a remedial manner, the government of one party is fully responsible for such drawbacks. It cannot shake off its responsibility for its actions.

(ii) No Constitutional Deadlock: If at any time a situation is created, the government of one party collapses, the opposition party is always in the position of forming the government. Thus countries in having two-party system no constitutional deadlock is created. The opposition party of today may be the possible government of tomorrow.

(iii) Facility for Voters in Election: In countries with two-party system the voter easily knows the programmes of both the parties and they can independently make a choice of the party and can vote for it. In multiple party system, there being many parties the voter cannot have a definite opinion and cannot decide for which party he should vote.

(iv) Useful for Parliamentary form of Government: The two-party system has proved very successful in countries having parliamentary form of government and the other party functions as opposition party. In this way both the parties serve as the two wheels of the government.

(v) Possibility of Stable Government: In Bi-party system, the government has majority in Parliament; consequently the Council of Ministers gets every thing doing on the basis of majority and the Parliament cannot pass a vote of no confidence against it. Hence, two-party system is comparatively more stable.

(vi) The Council of Minister Represents the People: In two-party system the Council of Ministers is formed from the party which has been returned in majority by the people. Hence, two-party system is more suitable to the spirit of democracy.

(vii) Firmness in Policy: The Council of Ministers can pursue its policy and programme firmly, because it knows that it has the support of its members in the Parliament for all its actions, good and bad.

Q. 8. Read the passage and answer the questions below:

Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests….An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests.

– Zoya Hasan

Questions

1. Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.

Ans. Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests.

2. Give an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.

Ans. An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests.

3. Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?

Ans. It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests because challenges are essential for the purpose of impression.

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