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Class 11 Sociology Chapter 9 Introducing Western Social Thinkers
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Introducing Western Social Thinkers
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
(a) Give very short Answer :
Q. no 1. When the French Revolution took place?
Ans : French Revolution took place in 1789 .
Q. no 2. Name three sociologist who laid the foundation of the subject?
Ans : Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber.
Q. no 3. How oppression and exploitation could be ended according to Marx?
Ans : Marx believed that through scientific Socialisms oppression and exploitation could be ended.
Q. no 4. Which is the latest phase of human advancement according to Marx?
Ans : Capitalism is the latest phase of human advancement. Marx believed that Capitalism would give away to Socialism.
Q. no 5 . Who is considered as father of sociology?
Ans : Emile Durkheim .
Q. no 6. Who was the first Professor of Sociology?
Ans : Emile Durkheim was the first Professor of sociology.
Q. no 7. Can you site thru example of social facts?
Ans : Institutions like law, religion, education are some example of social facts.
Q. no 8. On which basis Durkheim clarified socially?
Ans : Durkheim classified society on the basis of social solidarity that exist in the society.
Q. no 9. What type of social solidarity existed in primitive society according to Durkheim?
Ans : According to Durkheim in the primitive societies, mechanical solidarity existed.
Q. no 10. What type of social solidarity exist in modern society, according to Durkheim?
Ans : According to Durkheim organic solidarity exists in modern societies.
Q. no 11. What is a social, according to Durkheim?
Ans: According to Durkheim society is a social fact which exist as a moral community over and above the individual.
Q. no 12. What is social solidarity?
Ans : For the existence of society some form of ties are necessary which bound people in groups. There ties are known as social solidarity.
(b) Short and Long Answers :
Q. no 1. Which are the factors that helped the growth of Sociology?
Ans : Three revolutions passed the way for the emergence of sociology . These are the enlightenment, the industrial Revolution and the French revolution.
Q. no 2. Why Sociology is called as the child of the age of revolution?
Ans :Sociology was born in 19th century western Europe, after revolutionary changes brought out by the enlightenment, Industrial revolutions and the French revolution. These three revolutions completely changed the life style, thinking pattern of the people and to study these change, sociology emerged. So, it is called as the child of the age of revolution.
Q. no 3. Why was the Enlightenment for the development of Sociology?
Ans : During the late 17th and 18th centuries. Western Europe saw the emergence of radically new types of thinking about the world, which is known as enlightenment. This new philosophy established human being at the center of the Universe and rational thought as the centre feature of the human being. Enlightenment displaces nature, religion and the divine acts of gods from the central position and established a secular , scientific and humanistic way of thinking at the central position. These changes completely changed the society and to study such change socially emerged.
Q. no 4. How was the industrial revolution responsible for giving rise to sociology?
Ans : The foundation of the modern industrial society was laid down by the Industrial revolution, that began in the late 18th and early 19th century Britain. The Industrial revolution had two major aspects – systematic application of science and technology to industrial production and organization of labour and markets on a large seal in new style. Invention of machines like spinning Jenny, stream engine facilitated the production process and gave rise to the factory system and large scale production. In search of new markets for finished products as well as raw material for there big industries, colonial process actually started.
Moreover, the factories set up in urban areas were manned by workers who were uprooted from the rural areas and came to the cities in search of work. Low wages compelled them to form slum areas. Thus, modern industry enabled the urban to dominate over the rural. Thus, industrial revolution changed society at a very high pace and to systematically study such tremendous changes sociology came into existence. So, some observer argue that sociology is the science of the new industrial society.
Q. no 5. How was the French revolution responsible for creating a new society?
Ans : The French revolution announced the arrival of political sovereignty at the level of individuals as well as nation states. The declaration of Human Rights asserted the equality of all citizens and thus questioned the legitimacy of privileges inherited by birth. It signaled the emancipation of the individual form the oppressive rule of the religious and feudal institutions .
The French revolution established the nation state as a sovereign entity and compelled it to respect the privacy of the individual; separation was built between the public realm of the state and private realm of the individual. In the later years liberty, equality and fraternity the ideals of the French revolution became the water land of the modern state.
Q. no 6. What are the stages according to Max, the human society had passed through?
Ans : According to Marx the human society had passed through different stages. These are –
(i) Primitive Community.
(iii) Feudalism. and
Q. no 7. What are the different forms of alimentation as is found in the Capitalism according to Marx?
Ans : According to Karl Marx, Capitalist Society was marked by an ever intensifying process of alienation operating in several steps. First modern capitalism society is one where humans are more alienated from nature than ever before. Secondly, human beings are alienated from each other as capitation individualises previously collective from of social organization.
Thirdly the large man of working people is alienated from the fruits of its labour, because workers don’t own the products they produce. Moreover workers have no control over the world process itself. Finally as the combined result of act these alienation human beings are also alienated from themselves and struggle to male their lives meaningful in a system where they are both more free but also more alienated and less in control of there lives than before.
Q. no 8. How according to Marx Capitalism would be transferred?
Ans: According to Marx the capitalist society would be transformed to a free and equal socialist society by a revolution brought about the working class.
Q. no 9. What are the various components of mode of production ?
Ans : According to Marx economy is determined by mode of production. The concept o mode of production includes two things productive forces and production relations. Productive forces refer to all the means of or factors of production such as land labour, technology etc. On the other hand production relations refer to all the economic relationship and forms of labour organizations which are involved in production.
Q. no 10. What is mode of Production ?
Ans : According to Marx mode of production stood for a broad system of production associated with an epoch or historical period. This primitive communism, slavery feudalism were all modes of production. At this general level , the mode of production defines an entire way of life characteristics of an era.
Q. no 11. What were the productive forces in the primitive Communism?
Ans : In the primitive communism, the productive forces consisted mostly of nature – forests, land animals and so on -alone with very rudimentary forms of technology like simple stone tools and hunting weapons. Production relations were based on community property and included tribal forms of hunting and gathering which were the prevalent forms of labour organization.
|Chapter 1||Sociology And Society|
|Chapter 2||Terms, Concepts And Their Use In Sociology|
|Chapter 3||Understanding Social Institutions|
|Chapter 4||Culture And Socialisation|
|Chapter 5||Doing Sociology: Methods And Techniques|
|Chapter 6||Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society|
|Chapter 7||Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society|
|Chapter 8||Environment And Society|
|Chapter 9||Introducing Western Social Thinkers|
|Chapter 10||Indian Sociologists|
Q. no 12. What is infrastructure according to Marx?
Ans : According to Marx the economic base of a society is consisted of productive forces and forces of productive and on the basis of economy, all socio -political institution grow up. Hence Marx timed economy which implies mode of production, as infrastructure of the society.
Q. no 13. What is superstructure?
Ans : According to Marx on the basis of infrastructure i. e. economic relationship, other social cultural and political institutive grow up in the society. Thus institute like religion art, law literature etc built on the top of the base which are know as superstructure day change in the infrastructure is bound to make changes in the superstructure.
Q. no 14. What is class struggle?
Ans : According to Marx class struggle is the prime driving force of social change. Marx believed that on the basis of mode of production classes emerge in the society. According to Max in every society in every age there exists two conflicting economic classes oppressive and oppressed. The economically strong class always exploit the poor class. Marx believed that world History can be interpreted on the basis of this class struggle.
Q. no 15. How classes are formed?
Ans : Classes are formed through historical process. For Marx the most important. Method of classifying people into social groups was with reference to the production process. People who occupy the same positions in the social production process eventually forme they formal a class.
Q. no 16. Why do classes come into conflict according to Marx?
Ans : Through classes we objectively oppose to each after, they cannot automatically come into consist. For occurrence of conflict it is necessary for the classes to become subjectively conscious of then class interest and identities and therefore also of their rival ‘s interests and identities. It is only after the development of such class – consciousness through political mobilization that class-conflicts occur.
Q. no 17. Can only economic process leads to revolution?
Ans : According to Marx, economic process created contradictions which inturn generate class – conflict. But economic process didn’t automatically leads to revolution – Social and political process were also needed to bring about total transformation of society.
Q. no 18. What is dominant ideology?
Ans : In Marxian conception in every epoch. If the ruling classes promote a dominant ideology . The dominant ideology tends to justify the domination of the ruling class and the existing social order. For example, dominant ideologies may encourage poor people to believe that they are poor not because they are exploited by the rich but because of their fate.
Q. no 19. What is the function social solidarity?
Ans : Social solidarity exerts pressure individuals to conform to the norms and expectations of the group constrained the individuals behaviour pattern.
Q. no 20. What are the characteristics of sociology according to Durkheim?
Ans : According to Durkheim, Sociology is characterized by two defining features. Firstly, the subject matter sociology is different from other sciences. Sociology is exclusively concerned with the emergent level, that is the level of complex collective life where social phenomena can emerge. The second defining feature of sociology as explained by Durkheim is its imperial character.
For sociology it is very difficult to claim it self as imperial discipline, because social phenomena by their very nature are abstract. According to Durkheim. Sociology deals with observable and imperially verifiable evidence. Though not directly observable Durkheim believes that social facts are indecently observable through patterns of behaviour. So Durkheim termed sociology as empirical discipline.
Q. no 21. What are social facts? How do we recognise them?
Ans : Social facts are collective representation which emerge from the association of people. They are not particular to a person but of a general nature, independent of the individual.
Social facts can be observed through social behaviour and specially aggregate patterns of social behaviour.
Q. no 22. What are the differences between mechanical and organic solidarity?
Ans : While mechanical solidarity is the characteristic feature of primitive societies, organic solidarity is the basis of modern societies. The following are some of the differences between mechanical and organic solidarity.
Firstly : Mechanical solidarity is founded on the similarity of its individual members. It typically involves a collection of different self – sufficient groups where each person within a particular group engaged in similar activities.
On the other hand organic solidarity is based on the heterogeneity of its members.
Secondly :- Mechanical solidarity exists in societies where different group are self sufficient. On the other hand, organic solidarity exist in a society, where each of its constituent groups are not self – sufficient but dependent on other groups for survival.
Thirdly :- Mechanical solidarity puts much emphasis on community organic solidarity celebrates individuality.
Fourthly :- Mechanical solidarity based societies are not very tolerant of differences. On the other hand organic solidarity based societies recognizes differences, and multiple roles of individuals.
Fifthly :- Mechanical solidarity based societies have repressive laws which are designed to prevent deviation from community norms. On the other hand, organic community based societies have restitutive laws i.e. in modern society law aims to repair the wrong.
Q. no 23. What is mechanical Solidarity?
Ans : Mechanical solidarity was found in the primitive societies where population was small and individual members were engaged in similar activities. Mechanical solidarity is based on similarity and personal relationship. Societies based an mechanical solidarity and not very tolerant if differences.
Q. no 24. What is Organic Solidarity ?
Ans : Organic solidarity is the basis of modern socially is organic solidarity is based an heterogeneity of its members. It is found in societies with large populations. Such societies are based on institutions and each of its constituent groups are dependent on other groups for survival. Interdependence is the essence of organic solidarity.
Q. no 25. What is the main objective of social Science? Observed by Max Weber?
Ans : According to Weber the objective of social sciences is to develop an interpretive understanding of social action.
Q. no 26. What is social action, according to Weber?
Ans : For Weber social action included all meaningful human behaviour i.e. social action is action to which actors attached a meaning.
Q. no 27. What is emphatic understanding ?
Ans : According to Weber, in order to study social action the sociologists have to recover the meanings attributed by the actor. To accomplish this task the sociologists had to put themselves in actor ‘s place, and imagine what is an understanding based not feeling for but being with (empathy)
Q. no 28. What is special or difference about the kind of objectivity needed in social science sociology?
Ans : Weber was among the first to discuss the special and complex kind of ‘objectivity ‘ that the social sciences had to cultivate.
The social world is founded on subjective human meaning values, feelings, prejudices etc . In order to capture these meanings and describe them accurately;Social scientists had to constantly practice emphatic understanding by putting themselves imaginatively in the place of the people whose actions they are studying.
Weber emphasised on value neutrality. According to Weber the sociology to must neutrally record subjective values without being affected by his or her own feeling or opinion about there values.
Weber believed that this is very difficult to practice as social scientists are also members of society and they have their own subjective beliefs. According to Weber, social scientists have to practice great self discipline and should exercise iron will to make his study value-neutral.
Q. no 29. What is the ideal type?
Ans : Ideal type is a methodological tool for studying sociology. An ideal type is a logically consistent model of social phenomenon that highlights its most significant characteristics. An ideal type meant to be an exact reproduction of reality.
Q. no 30. What are the 3 types of authority as told by Weber?
Ans : Marx Weber mentioned about three types of authority –
(a) Traditional authority.
(b) Charismatic authority. and
(c) Legal rational authority.
Q. no 31. What are the main features of bureaucracy ?
Ans : According to Weber bureaucracy authority is characterized by the following features –
(a) Functioning of officials :- In bureaucracy, officials have fixed areas of official jurisdiction governed by rules, laws and administrative regulations. Commands are issued by higher authority which are implemented by subordinates.
(b) Hierarchical Order :- In bureaucracy authority and office are placed on a graded hierarchy where higher officials supervise the lower.
(c) Written Documentation :- In bureaucracy system every work is carried out on the basis of written document (files) which are preserved for records.
(d) Specialisation :- In bureaucracy system incumbents are chosen on the basis of merit and ability perform specialized aspects of a total operation .
(e) Code of Conduct :- In bureaucratize system officials follow a code of conduct. Their rights, duties and privileges are clearly defined and procedures of work are definite and settled.
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