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Class 11 Sociology Chapter 7 Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society
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Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q. no 1. For how many years human beings have existed on planet earth?
Ans : For approximately 5,00,000 (Five lakhs) years .
Q. no 2. How old is human civilization?
Ans : Human civilization is about 6,000 years old.
Q. no 3. What is the unchanging or permanent aspect of society?
Ans :Change is the only unchanging or permanent aspect of society.
Q. no 4. Why Violence emerge in society?
Ans : Violence emerge in society due to social tensions indicates the presence of serious problems.
(b) Short and Long Answers :
Q. no 1. How the discipline sociology emerged?
Ans : Sociology emerged as an effort to study the rapid changes that western European society had experienced between 17th to 19th century.
Q. no 2. What is social group?
Ans : Social change refers to changes that are significant that is changes which after the underlying structure of an objective or situation over a period of time. Thus social change only include those changes which transform things -fundamentally.
Q. no 3. What is evolution?
Ans : Evolution refers to the process of show changes that takes place over a long period of time. The term evolution was mode famous by natural scientist Charles Darwin which propounding his famous theory of evolution which seeks to explain as how living organism evolve slowly over several centuries or even milenia.
Q. no 4. What do you understand by ‘Survived of the fittest?
Ans : Darwin theory emphasized the idea of the survival of the fittest – which implies that only those like forms only mange to survive who are best adapted to their environment. Those which we unable to adopt die out in the large sun.
Q. no 5. What is social Darwinism?
Ans : Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and the idea of survival of the fittest which is closely related with the theory of evolution referred to natural process. But soon it was adopted to the social world and was termed as social Darwinism – a theory which emphasized the importance of adoptive change.
Q. no 6. What is revolutionary change?
Ans : Revolutionary change occurs comparatively quick even suddenly. The term revolutionary change is used mainly in the political context -when the power structure of a society changes very rapidly through the overthrow of former ruling class a group.
Q. no 7. What is structural change? Give an example of the.
Ans : Structural change refers to transformations the structure of society, to its institutions or the rules by which these institutions run.
As for example, the emergence of paper money as currency marked a major change in the structure of banking and of financial markets. These change is turn produced further changes in the organization of economic life.
Q. no 8. How changes in values and beliefs lead to social change?
Ans : Changes in values and beliefs can also lead to social change. For example in the 19th Century it was considered good and proper that children start to work as soon as they were able to do. But when the idea that childhood as a special stage of life gained influence in the 19th and early 20th century it become unthinkable for small children to be at work .
At that time ideas of compulsory education emerged and children were supposed to be in school rather then at work place. Many countries passed laws barring child labour thus, changes in values and beliefs lead to social change.
Q. no 9. What are the sources or causes of social change?
Ans : The most common way of classifying social change is by its causes or sources sometimes sources of social change are classified into internal or endogenous and external or exogenous causes.
Moreover, there are fine broad types of causes of social change. These are – environmental, technological economical political and cultural.
Q. no 10. Do you believe that environment shape society ? Discuss.
Ans : Yes, Nature ecology and the physical environment always laya significant influence on the structure and written shape of society. This was particularly true when human beings were unable to control or overcome the effects of nature. As far example, the people living in a desert environment were unable to practice settled agriculture like plain or near rivers. Hence, the food habit dress code patterns of social action etc are normally determined by physical and climatic conditions.
Q. no 11. How environment affects social change? Discuss.
Ans : Environment is a powerful factor of social change. Sudden and catastrophic events such as earthquakes, floods tidal waves like tsunami can change societies quite drastically. There are numerous instances of natural disasters loading to total transformation and sometimes total destruction of society. However, there are many examples of constructive change that tales place due to environmental factors. As for example, discovery of gold in California and oil reserves in the Middle east have completely transformed the conserving societies.
Q. no 12. Mention peculiar feature of environment related social change.
Ans :The charges which takes place due to environmental change one often irreversible i. e. such changes are permanent..
Q. no 13. How technology change society? Give an example of social change brought about by technology.
Ans : Technology affects society in a wide variety of ways. The most famous example of massive social change brought about by technology is the industrial revolution.
The discovery of stream power changes the industrial as well as transportation system. Steamships and railways transformed the economy and social geography of the world. Steamships made ocean voyages much farter and reliable thereby changing the dynamics of international trade. In India railroad played a significant role in shaping the economy of the country. The changes brought out by the inventions of gunpowder paper and printing technology, new spinning and weaving machines are some examples of social change.
Q. no 14. How politics brings about social change?
Ans : Political forces have been among the most important causes of social change we know that in the old days . The actions of kings and queens were important forces of social change. In the history of warfare, we found that the conquerors brought the needs of social change and planted them wherever they went. In India the British rule was chiefly responsible for bringing modernization in Indian society. Moreover, the Indian Independence movement, which is an outcome of British rule in India, not simply brought political change i. e. indepens. It actually decisively changed the whole fabric of the Indian society.
Universal adult franchise or the one man one vote principle is probably the single biggest political change in history. In the earlier days, all women, men of lower classes, or subordinate activities and poor and working people were not allowed to note. But with the induction of the principal of universal adult franchise, individual at least in the political realm became equal. This has brought massive social changes in the entire world.
Q. no 15. What is culture? How culture brings social change?
Ans : Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art? Morals, low, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society.
Culture is a very important instrument of social change. The most important socio cultural institution that has had enormous social impact is religious. Religious beliefs and norms have helped organize society and the change in there beliefs have helped transform social. Max weber’s study the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism showed how the religious beliefs of some Christian Protestant sects helped to establish the Capitalism social system.
It remains one of the most famous example of impact of cultural values on economic and social change . In India the impact of Buddhism an social and political life of ancient India and the underspread influence of the Bhakti movement on medieval trail structure and caste system can be seen as examples of impact of culture an social change.
Q. no 16. What is social order?
Ans : Social order simply refers to the tendency within established social systems that resists and regulates change. However, the nation of social order does not simply imply the idea of resistance to change. It also refers to the active maintenance and reproduction of particular pattern of social relations and values and norms.
Q. no 17. What are the ways to achieve social order? Discuss.
Ans : Broadly speaking social order can be achieved in two ways – when people spontaneously wish to abide by a set of rules and norms, or when people are compelled in various ways to obey such norms. Every society employs a combination of these methods to sustain social order.
Spontaneous consent to social order drives ultimately from shared values and norms chiefly through the proven of socialization. But it cannot produce complete and permanent consent for all norms at all times. So while socialization carries much of the burden of producing social order, it is never enough by itself.
Thus, most modern societies also depend on some form of power or coercion to ensure that institutions and individuals conform to established social norms.
Q. no 18. What is domination?
Ans : If a social entity ( a person institution or group) is habitually in a position of power it is said to be dominant. When a relationship of power is stable and settled and the parties involved have become accustomed to their relation positions, domination arise.
Q. no 19. What is power?
Ans : power is usually defined as the ability to make others do what you want regardless of what they themselves want.
Q. no 20. What do you mean by legitimacy?
Ans : Legitimacy refers to the degree of acceptance that is involved in power relations. It implies conformity to existing names of right propriety and justice.
Q. no 21. What is authority ? How is it related to domination and law?
Ans : According to Max Weber authority is legitimate power. Power can be either legitimate or illegitimate. But when power gets legitimacy i.e. considered to be just and proper, it becomes authority. When a relationship of power is stable and settled, and the parties involved have become accustomed to their relative positions, Situation of domination arise. Domination works through power, and much of this power is actually legitimate power of authority a large portion of which is codified law. A law is an explicitly codified norm or rule normally found in written form, which contains specific provisions to make or change laws, to punish those who violates laws. And authority is something which is lawful.
So, there exist a very close relationship between authority, law and domination.
|Sociology And Society
|Terms, Concepts And Their Use In Sociology
|Understanding Social Institutions
|Culture And Socialisation
|Doing Sociology: Methods And Techniques
|Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society
|Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society
|Environment And Society
|Introducing Western Social Thinkers
Q. no 22. Can authority be exercised informally?
Ans : Authority can be both formal and informal. Informal authority are not strictly defined -but it is very effective in eliciting consent and Co – operation. As for example, one religious leader posses informal authority. Likewise reputed scholars, artists, intellectuals etc wield a lot of authority in their respective fields without any formal process.
Q. no 23. What is contestation ? Give some examples contestation?
Ans : In the terminology of sociology, contestation simply stands for broad forms of insistent disagreement. Contestation also include dissent or protest against laws or lawful authorities.
Counter culture or youth rebellion can be cited as an example of contestation. Election is a standard form of contestation.
Q. no 24. What is counter culture or youth rebellion?
Ans : Counter culture or youth bellion are protests against or refusal to conform to prevalent social norms. The content of these protests may involve anything form hairstyles and clothing fashions to language or life styles.
Q. no 25. What is crime?
Ans : A crime is an act that violates an existing law, nothing more, nothing less, sometimes laws are deliberately violated it is believed to be unjust. But then also breaking of law is to be taken as a crime. Thus, whatever the intention it may be breaking of law is considered to be a crime.
Q. no 26. What is violence?
Ans : Violence is the enemy of social order. It is an extreme form of contestations that transgresses not only the law, but important social norms also. The concept of violence has a very close relation with the state as the state have the monopoly over the use of legitimate violence within its jurisdiction. Thus technically every act of violence is seen as being directed against the state.
Q. no 27. Discuss the differences between village and town.
Ans : In economic and administrative terms, the distraction between village and town is made on the basis of two major factors – population density and the proportion of agricultural related economic activities. Cities or towns have a much higher density of population than villages. On the other hand villages have a significant proportion of its population emerged in agricultural linked occupations in comparing with cities or towns.
Q. no 28. What are the differences between town and City?
Ans : The distinction between a town and city is much more a matter of administrative definition. A town and city are basically the same sort of settlement, differentiated by size. A city is basically an urban agglomeration with surrounding sub – urban areas and satellite settlements.
Q. no 29. What is Urbanisation?
Ans : Urbanisation is the process by which a progressively larger and larger proportion of the country’s – population lives in urban rather than rural areas. Almost all the countries of the world have witnessed the process of urbanization .
Q. no 30. Mention some features of social order in rural areas?
Ans : As villages are small in size, it is usual for members of a village to know all or most other members by sight. Personal relationship among the members of the village converts village into a big family which makes it impossible for the village to violate established social norms and behaviour. Moreover, the social structure in villages tends to follow.
Q. no 31. Mention some features of social order in rural areas.
Ans : As villages are small in size, it is usual for members of a village to know all or most other members by sight. Personal relationship among the members of the village converts village in to a big family – which makes it impossible for the villagers to violate established social norms and behaviour. Moreover, the social structure in villages tends to follow a more traditional pattern -where caste, religion etc. are stronger .
In the villages the dominant sections are much more powerful in comparison with its counterparts in the cities. Because in the villages the dominant sections control many avenues of employment and other resources. So, the poor have to depend upon the dominant sections since there is no alternative scope of employment. Give the small population, it is difficult to gather large numbers, particularly since efforts towards this cannot be hidden form the powerful and are very quickly suppressed. So, if there exist a strong power structure at a village, it is difficult to dislodge it.
Q. no 32. Which factors have contributed towards minimization of cultural lay between villages and cities?
Ans : New modes of communication, particularly telephone and television have contributed largely to minimize cultural lag between villages and two. Improved rail and road communication system have accelerated the pace of change at the villages.
Q. no 33. What are the challenges to social order in urban areas?
Ans : Most of the important issues and problems of social order in towns and cities are related to the question of space. High population density creates very complex problems of logistics. Organisation and management of things like housing and residential patterns , mass transit system for transporting large numbers of workers to and form work place, arranging for the co – existence of residential, public and industrial land use zones, and provisions for public health. Sanitation, policing public safety etc. are the fundamental task of urban social order.
For example, shortage of housing for the poor leads to homelessness and the phenomena of street people – who live and survive on the streets. It is also chief care of growth of Slum areas in the cities . Due to the absence of settled properly rights, Slums became the natural breeding ground for ‘Dada’ or ‘Bhais ‘ – who impose authority on the people who live their.
Q. no 34. What is Slum?
Ans : Though official definitions vary a slum is a congested, over crowded neighbourhood with no proper civic facilities the sanitation water supply, electricity etc. In slum area homes are made of all kinds of building materials ranging from plastic sheets and cardboard to multi storeyed concrete structures.
Q. no 35. What are dominant castes?
Ans : M. N. Srinivas used the term dominant contes to refer to land owring intermediate castes that are numerically large and therefore enjoy political dominance in a given region.
Q. no. 36. What is a gated Community?
Ans: Gated Communities are found in urban areas. It is a residential area of upper class or affluent section which is sealed off from its surroundings by fences, walls and gates with controlled entry and exit.
Q. no 37. What is Gentrification?
Ans : The term gentrification is used to describe the inversion of a law class urban neighbourhood into a middle or upper class neighbourhood.
Q. no 38. What is ‘Ghetto ‘ ?
Ans : The term ghetto was used first to refer to the locality where Jews lived in medieval European cities. Today it refers to any neighbourhood with a concentration of people of a particular religion, ethnicity, caste or other common identity.
Q. no 39. What is Ghettoisation?
Ans : Ghettoisation is the process of creation of ghettos through the conversion of mixed composition neighbourhoods into single community neighbourhood.
Q. no 40. Discount the differences between rural and urban community.
Ans : (i) Rural communities are primarily dependent on the occupation of agriculture.
Urban community is primarily dependent on the non agricultural occupation.
(ii) Rural communities live in close proximity with the environment. There is greater isolation from nature and the environment in urban communities.
(iii) Rural communities are small in size. Urban community is large in size.
(iv) Rural communities are homogeneous in character. Urban community is heterogeneous in character.
(v) There is simplicity in living style in rural communities. There is complexity in living style in urban communities.
Q. no 41. What is social change? Mention there factors of social change.
Ans : Social change refers to changes in society. It refers to changes in human inter -action and inter-relation. In simple it means change in social relations.
Three factors of social change are –
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