Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 4 Social Anthropology

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Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 4 Social Anthropology, HS 1st year Anthropology notes, Anthropology Class 11 Question Answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 4 Social Anthropology and select needs one.

Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 4 Social Anthropology

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. NCERT Solution of Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 4 Social Anthropology is part of AHSEC All Subject Solutions. Here we have given AHSEC Class 11 Anthropology Chapter 4 Social Anthropology Notes for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Social Anthropology

Chapter – 4

ANTHROPOLOGY

Very short type questions

1. Define society.

Answer: Society is a system of usages and procedures, of authority and mutual aid of many grouping and division, of controls of human behaviour and of liberties.

2. Write a brief note on human society.

Answer: Social behaviour and culture can be learned and thought by parents to children is called human society.

3. Mention four characteristics of human society.

Answer: Four characteristics of human society are:-

i) territorially localised population;

ii) the members of which interact in a network of relationship

iii) which are distinctive, culturally defined and limited,

iv) affectively bonded by common linguistic and other forms of symbolic representation.

4. Mention two groups based on kinship.

Answer: Two groups based on kinship are:-

i) Family.

ii) Clan.

5. Mention five characteristics of simple or primitive society.

Answer: Five characteristics of simple or primitive society are:- 

i) The primitive societies are small, isolated, non-literate and homogenous.

ii) In the primitive societies members have face to face interaction and spontaneous behaviour.

iii) The extent of communication both in time and space is inevitably narrow due to the absence of writing skill.

iv) They have strong social relation based on kinship and locality.

v) The education system in simple or primitive is very informal, knowledge are perpetuated through dormitories.

6. Write a note on the social group based on sex.

Answer: A social unit is formed on the basis of sex i.e. male and female. There are some societies in the world where only male are allowed as member. Among the Australian aboriginals there are some secret societies composed of male. In tribal societies there are some dormitories where unmarried girls and girls live separately. Similarly a boy is not allowed to come to the girl’s dormitories. In many tribal societies there are some dormitories where unmarried young boys and girls live separately.

7. What is the social unit based on age?

Answer: There are some societies where an organised category of people with membership on the basis of age. Entry and transfer out of age grades may be accomplished individually, either by a biological distinction, such as puberty, or by a socially recognised status, such as marriage or childbirth. Among the Ao Nagas the youngs are admitted into bachelor’s dormitory in every three year to get training in different sphere of life. The first three years they are called as ‘chongpur’. They have to serve the elders as servants. Then they are promoted to ‘changmen’. At that time they have to carry food stuff to the warriors. After three years they have to join ‘acumen’ and by the time they are supposed to be fit to fight with the enemies. Finally after three years they generally get married and called ‘richgro’ and leave the dormitory.

8. Distinguish between society and social group.

Answer: The different between society and social group are:- Society is composed of people or aggregation of human beings. The aggression of people is necessary to have a society but only when this aggregation is bounded together by common people of behaviour. In other words societies exist within definite boundaries and occupy a definable space. The members of the society interact in a network of social relation that are ordered and patterned according to prevailing customs. Culture is product of society which helps the members in getting interact with patterned and repetitive manner. There is no definite numbers of people required for a society.where social group are usually small organisations composed of individuals who are tied together in personal relation. A social group comes into existence for the purposes of achieving certain common aims. ‘social group’ and ‘society’ are two different words and must not confuse with each other. A society is more permanent and organised than social group. A social group is a part of society. According to S.F. Nadel, “a collection of individuals who stands in a regular and relatively permanent relationship”. Mac Iver and Page define social group as “any collection of human beings who are brought into social relationships with one another”. Social groups are inevitably smaller in size and even lack the recognizable structure. They can be divided into, primary group and secondary group. Primary group is a face group based on direct personal contact, members deal immediately with each other. Family, play group etc are the instances of primary group. Secondary group rest on indirect, secondary or categorical contacts where people may not contact with each other. Business organisation, labour union, church, state, etc are the examples of secondary groups.

9. Write two differences between social group and social institution.

Answer: Two differences between social group and social institution are:-

Social group: a) A social group is a collection of individuals who stands in a regular and relatively permanent relationship.

b) It is defined as any collection of human beings who are brought into social relationships with one another.

Social institution: a) A social institution is a dynamic aspect of social system.

b) It refers to the systematic ordering of social relations by acts of choice and decision.

10. What are the different bases for the formation of social units?

Answer: The different bases for the formation of social units are:- 

a) Social unit based on sex: A social unit is formed on the basis of sex i.e. male and female. There are some societies in the world where only male are allowed as member. Among the Australian aboriginals there are some secret societies composed of male. In tribal societies there are some dormitories where unmarried girls and girls live separately. Similarly a boy is not allowed to come to the girl’s dormitories. In many tribal societies there are some dormitories where unmarried young boys and girls live separately.

b) Social unit based on age: There are some societies where an organised category of people with membership on the basis of age. Entry and transfer out of age grades may be accomplished individuall, either by a biological distinction, such as puberty, or by a socially recognised status, such as marriage or childbirth. Among the Ao Nagas the youths are admitted into bachelor’s dormitory in every three year to get training in different sphere of life. The first three years they are called as chonkpur’. They have to serve the elders as servants. Then they are promoted to changmin’. At that time they have to carry food stuff to the warriors. After three years they have to join ‘achuthananda by the time they are supposed to be fit to fight with the enemies. Finally after three years they generally get married and called ‘richgro and leave the dormitory.

c) Social unit based on kinship: Family, lineage, clan, phratry, moiety are formed on the basis of kinship. In the family, which is the smallest social unit both consanguinity and affinal kinship are found. The husband and wife relationship is based on affinal and parents- child relationship based on consanguinity. The offspring of a person of a particular clan will be included automatically as a member of the same clan directly after his birth. The same rule is applicable in the case of lineage also. The phratry and moiety is also social units based on kinship as it is composed of several clans.

11. Point out the basis differences between primitive and modern society.

Answer: The basis differences between primitive and modern society are:-

Primitive society: a) Primitive are made up of small groups such as the clan, village, tribe etc.

b) Primitive are more or less homogenous in nature.

c) Writing skills are absent.

d) Technical achievement is less.

e) Division of labour is simple.

f) Formal educational institutions are absent.

g) Influence of magic and supernatural powers in simple society.

h) Primitive economic system. Market is generally absent.

i) Absence of currency.

j) Social relation is based on kinship and locality.

Modern society: a) Modern societies are made up of bigger groups such as the state, nation, empire, etc.

b) Modern societies are more or less heterogeneous in nature.

c) Sophisticated reading and writing skils are there.

d) Technically much progressive.

e) Division of labour is highly specialised.

f) Formal educational institutions are present.

g) Scientific influences are among the members of the modern society.

h) Complex economic system. Presence of market.

i) Presence of currency.

j) Less stress is given in kinship and locality for social relation.

12. What are the different aspects of society that are studied in social anthropology.

Answer: students have to find out ( do yourself).

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