Biography of Atal Bihari Vajpayee – 10th Prime Minister of India

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who had been closely associated with the Indian political arena for nearly five decades, was a star in Indian political life. Vajpayee was able to win everyone’s heart not as a politically powerful leader but because of his powerful personality. Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s personality, also described as the visionary of Neo-India, who was very much above political ideological differences. For which he is considered to be the hero of the politics of true values. Vajpayee, who took over as the 10th Prime Minister of independent India, possessed versatile personalities and qualities such as journalist-poet-lyricist-agitator-social reformer-politician etc.

Biography of Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Biography of Atal Bihari Vajpayee

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Table of Contents

NameAtal Bihari Vajpayee[1]
Date of BirthDecember 25, 1924
Place of BirthGwalior, Madhya Pradesh
Father’s NameKrishna Bihari Vajpayee
Mother’s NameKrishna Devi
Education1/ Saraswati Sishu Mandir, Gwalior

2/ Victoria College, Gwalior (now Maharani Laxmibai Government College)

3/ DAV College, Kanpur
Awards1/ Padma Vibhushan, 1992

2/ D Litt,1996 (Kanpur University)

3/ Lokmanya Tilak Award, 1994

4/ Best Parliamentarian, 1994

5/ Bharat Ratna, 2014,

6/ D Litt, 2015 (Madhya Pradesh Open University)
DeathAugust 16, 2018

Early Life and Education of Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, a visionary, fearless, dedicated and humanitarian mass leader, was born on December 25, 1924, in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. His father’s name is Krishna Bihari Vajpayee and mother’s name is Krishna Devi. Krishna Bihari Vajpayee was a school teacher in their home town. His grandfather, Shyam Lal Vajpayee, had migrated to Morena near Gwalior from his ancestral village of Bateshwar in the Agra district of Uttar Pradesh.

Vajpayee did his formal education from Saraswati Sishu Mandir in Gwalior, Atal Bihari Vajpayee enrolled in the Anglo-Vernacular Middle (AVM) School located in Barnagar, Ujjain district where his father had joined as headmaster in 1934. Later, he graduated from Victoria College, Gwalior (now Maharani Laxmi Bai Government College) and obtained a master’s degree in political science from DAV College.

Also Read: Biography of Chandra Shekhar Singh Solanki

Independent Movement

Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s social life journey started as a freedom fighter, who devoted himself every moment for the well-being of the society at every turn. Vajpayee participated in the Quit India Movement in 1942. Later on, however, Atal Bihari Vajpayee was more attracted to the ideology of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). For which he joined the RSS as a volunteer.

It may be recalled that in 1947, Vajpayee took over as a journalist in Rashtradharma (a monthly magazine published in Hindi), Panchjanya (a weekly paper published in Hindi) and daily newspaper Swadesh and Veer Arjun, edited by Deendayal Upadhyaya. Subsequently, influenced by the ideology of Syama Prasad Mukherjee, Vajpayee joined the Bharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who first started his journey in parliamentary politics in 1957, contested the Lok Sabha elections from three seats and was elected as a Member of Parliament from Balrampur constituency in Uttar Pradesh. Vajpayee’s solemn speech while taking oath as a Member of Parliament in the Lok Sabha particularly impressed all the members of parliament as well as the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Impressed by Vajpayee’s statement, Nehru predicted that “Vajpayee would one day become the Prime Minister of India.” Significantly, Atal Bihari Vajpayee took over as the national president of the Jana Sangh after the death of Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1968. Later, he along with Lal Krishna Advani, Nanaji Deshmukh Balraj Madhok etc., worked in an organized manner and strengthened the foundation of the Jana Sangh in Indian politics.

Janata Party and Bharatiya Janata Party

It may be recalled that in June 1975, Indira Gandhi had to spend several months in jail during the Emergency period. Vajpayee was also arrested along with several other opposition leaders during the Internal Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi in 1975. Gandhi ended the state of emergency in 1977. A coalition of parties, came together to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general elections. Morarji Desai was choosen as the prime minister. Vajpayee served as the minister of external affairs, in Desai’s cabinet. As a external affairs minister, Vajpayee became the first person in 1977 to deliver a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in Hindi. In 1979, Janata Party was collapsed. Subsequently, in the 1980s, Vajpayee joined many individuals with Lal Krishna Advani and played an important role in establishing the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and became the first president of the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Significantly, after the assassination of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the BJP party managed to win only two seats in 1984. This defeat left Atal Bihari Vajpayee mentally devastated. Because he worked tirelessly to establish the Bharatiya Janata Party among the masses at all levels. However, in its subsequent parliamentary elections, the BJP managed to win 88 seats in 1989.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee was a member of parliament for more than five decades. It may be recalled that he was elected to the Lok Sabha ten times and twice to the Rajya Sabha as an elected Parliament.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s Terms as Prime Minister 1996 – 2004

Importantly, Vajpayee served three terms as the Prime Minister of India. His first term in 1996 was just 13 days. Subsequently, he served as prime minister for 13 months from 1998 to 1999. He finally successfully served as a full term of five years from 1999 to 2004. He is the first non-Congress Prime Minister to complete a full five-year term.

Importantly, The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee was in power at the Centre during the Kargil war. India’s victory in this war had a positive impact on Vajpayee’s image. The Kargil war proved to the whole world that Vajpayee was ready to challenge at all levels in the interest of the nation. On May 11, 1998, when India formally conducted its first nuclear test at Pokhran in Rajasthan, it not only demonstrated the scientific capabilities of the country but also reflected the courage of Vajpayee’s leadership.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, a leader of state with a strong personality, was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1992 for his contribution to the country. Vajpayee was also recognised as the best member of parliament in 1994. Vajpayee was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 2014.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who played a key role in Indian politics for decades, retired from Indian politics in late 2005. Undoubtedly, Vajpayee was a leader of state, poet, writer with a multi-faceted personality. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who is responsible for his language culture, was able to ensure his place among the people through his work as well as his eloquence. He created a new trend in the field of Indian politics. When Vajpayee, who respected the ruler and opposition, delivered his speech in Parliament, a unique atmosphere was created in the Parliament House. Vajpayee won the hearts of all the anti-ruling parties through a hypnotic force.

Vajpayee, the supreme flag bearer of the politics of values, wrote many books, including poetry books, essays, etc. They are-

The book of articles are- National Integration (1961), New Dimensions of India’s Foreign Policy (1979), Gathbandhan Ki Rajneeti, Kucha Lekha, Kucha Bhashana (1996), Bindu-Bindu Vicara (1997), Decisive Days (1999), Sankalp-Kaal (1999), Vicara-Bindu, India’s Perspectives on ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific Region (2003), Na Dainyam Na Palayanam, Nayi Chunouti : Naya Avasar,

The books of poetry are- Kaidi Kaviraj Ki Kundalian, Amar Aag Hai (1994), Meri Ikyaavan Kavitaen (1995), Kya Khoya Kya Paya: Atal Bihari Vajapeyi, Vyaktitva Aur Kavitaem (1999), Values, Vision & Verses of India’s Man of Destiny (2001), Twenty-one Poems (2003), Chuni Hui Kavitayein (2012). 

Personal Life and Death

It may be recalled that Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who remained a bachelor for his entire life, had adopted and raised Namita Bhattacharya, as his own child, daughter of his college friend Rajkumari Kaul and her husband B.N. Kaul. Atal Bihari Vajpayee breathed his last on August 16, 2018 at the age of 93 due to long serving illness. It is to be noted that Vajpayee was confronted by his foster daughter Namita Kaul Bhattacharya.


Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s political honesty, values and ideals, who have a strong personality, will always be alive among the new generation. Hailed as a politician and also a man with a towering personality who has contributed to the field of literature, Vajpayee’s intellectual vision, hard work and humble behaviour is still popular among all and Vajpayee’s thoughts have relevance even today.


1. When and where was Atal Bihari Vajpayee born?

Ans: Atal Bihari Vajpayee was born on December 25, 1924, in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

2. What were the names of Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s father and mother?

Ans: Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s father’s name is Krishna Bihari Vajpayee and mother’s name is Krishna Bai.

3. When did Atal Bihari Vajpayee took over as prime minister of India?

Ans: Atal Bihari Vajpayee served as prime minister for three terms. His first term in 1996 was just 13 days. Subsequently, he served as prime minister for 13 months from 1998 to 1999. He finally successfully served as a full term of five years from 1999 to 2004.

4. When did Atal Bihari Vajpayee breathed his last?

Ans: Vajpayee breathed his last on August 16, 2018 at the age of 93 due to long serving illness.

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