NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 21 Indian National Movement

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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 21 Indian National Movement, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 21 Indian National Movement and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 21 Indian National Movement Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 21 Indian National Movement

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 21 Indian National Movement, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Indian National Movement

Chapter: 21




Q. 1. When was Indian National Congress formed? Which English officer played a significant role in its formation?

Ans: Indian National Congress was formed in December 1885. A.O. Hume played a significant role in its formation.

Q. 2. Who announced the partition of Bengal and when?

Ans: Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal in 1905.

Q. 3. Which popular theatre form was used to spread nationalist feeling.

Ans: Jatra.

Q. 4. What was the main reason for shifting of capital in 1911?

Ans: To decrease the importance of Calcutta.


Q. 1. Who founded Ghadar Movement in the city of San Francisco?

Ans: Sohan Singh Bhakna and Har Dayal.

Q. 2. What is Komagata Maru incident?

Ans: Passengers of the ship Komagata Maru to Canada were turned away by the Canadian Government, when they reached Calcutta in 1914 passengers clashed with the police and 22 people were killed.

Q. 3. Who brought out the revolutionary journal?

Ans: Madam Cama.

Q. 4. Annie Besant and Tilak started which movement?

Ans: Home Rule Movement.


Q. 1. Gandhiji experimented with which movement on his method of non- violent satyagraha during 1916-1917?

Ans: Movements in Champaran. Kheda and Ahmedabad.

Q. 2. When was Rowlatt satyagraha launched?

Ans: 6th April 1919.

Q. 3. What is the importance of Baisakhi day of 1919 in National Movement?

Ans: On this day on the gathering at Jalianwalla Bagh General Dyer has his men fire at the crowd of unarmed and helpless people leaving 379 dead.


Q. 1. On which specific points Non-Co-operation Movement was initiated?

Ans: Non-Cooperation Movement was initiated on three specific points: 

1. the Khilafat wrong.

 2. the Punjab wrong and.

 3. Swaraj.

Q. 2. When and by whom Swaraj Party was founded?

Ans: Swaraj Party was founded in 1923 by Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das..

Q. 3. Give full form to HSRA.

Ans: Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.


Q. 1. From where Dandi March was started?

Ans: Sabarmati Ashram.

Q. 2. In how many provinces Congress got absolute majorities during 1937 elections?

Ans: During 1937 elections Congress got absolute majorities in five provinces. 

Q. 3. How many people were arrested in Quit India Movement?

Ans: Over 91,000 people were arrested in Quit India Movement.


Q. 1. Mention the issues of concern of early Congress.

Ans: The issues of concern of early Congress were as follows:

(i) The reform of Supreme and Local Legislative Councils with greater powers for Indian representatives.

(ii) Indianization of the Civil Services with simultaneous examinations to be held in England and India.

(iii) Changes in the forest laws that affected the Indian people.

(iv) Organization of campaigns against

indentured labour in Assam tea plantations. 

Q. 2. Trace the development of Swadeshi and Boycott movement.

Ans: (i) In 1905, Lord Curzon, the then Governor General announced the partition of Bengal. The province of Bengal at that time comprised of the present states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and Assam. It also included the present country of Bangladesh.

(ii) Though Bengal was a very large administrative unit, the way the partition was done clearly indicated the divisive policies of the British.

(iii) It was on the line of religion, the areas where Hindus were in a majority, were separated from Muslim majority areas.

(iv) The urban bases of the resurgent intelligentsia (English educated upper caste Indian), were separated from the mainly cultivating areas, most significantly the jute producing areas, was also an attempt to reduce the significance of Calcutta where the intelligentsia from all over Bengal met and inspired each other.

(v) There were widespread protests following this announcement. Initially the protest was on the lines of the prayer and petition tactics of the moderates whereby petitions and memoranda were addressed to the colonial government, and speeches, public meetings and press campaigns were held. In spite of these attempts the partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905.

(vi) In response to this announcement, Bengal broke out in protest. Protest meetings were held throughout Bengal. For the first time the decision to boycott’ British goods was taken. Formal proclamation of the Swadeshi Movement was made on August 7, 1905 with the passing of the ‘Boycott’ resolution in a meeting at the Calcutta townhall.

(vii) On the day the partition was put into effect i.e. 16 October, 1905, a hartal was called in Calcutta and a day of mourning was declared. People fasted and no fire was lit in the cooking hearth. People paraded the streets singing Bande Mataram. The people of Bengal also tied rakhis on each other’s wrist as a symbol of solidarity.

Q. 3. Briefly discuss the various strengths of revolutionary movement in India and abroad during 1907-1914.

Ans: (i) The revolutionary goal was the end of British rule through extreme self sacrifice. Their methods were to assassinate unpopular colonial officials who were responsible for giving shape to the repressive acts of the government.

(ii) The colonial response to the mass movements was always two fold. On the one hand, it gave concessions to the leaders by undertaking constitutional reforms and inviting them to participate in the limited elections, on the other hand, there was large scale repression mainly through arrest of key leaders.

(iii) The extremist leadership spent several years in jail. Their being in and out of jails resulted in the revolutionary movement largely being underground, operated by secret organisations. These organisations had their genesis in the samitis of the Swadeshi days.

(iv) The revolutionaries also undertook Swadeshi dacoities to raise funds for their movement.

(v) At Deoband, in an Islamic centre of learning in Uttar Pradesh, a group of learned men, or Ulema, also preached the revolutionary message which had a large following among Muslims.

(vi) The revolutionary movement had also started slowly spreading beyond the shores of India. Shyamji Krishnaverma had started in 1905 a centre for Indian students in London called India House.

(vii) In 1907 this organisation was taken over by a revolutionary group under VD Savarkar. Madanlal Dhingra of this organisation assassinated the India Office bureaucrat Curzon-Wyllie in London in 1909.

(viii) In Europe (Paris and Geneva) Madame Cama a Parsi revolutionary, established contacts with French socialists and brought out the revolutionary journal Bande Mataram.

(ix) In Berlin, Virendranath Chattopadhay and others operated since 1909. In Britain and Europe the revolutionary groups were fairly isolated.

(x) However, the movement found something of a mass base in the United States of America, specially in the states of British Columbia and those along the Pacific coast. These states had a population of 15000 Indians mainly of the Sikh community who were facing considerable amounts of racial discrimination in spite of being successful traders and workers. Amongst this population began the Ghadr Movement in 1913 in the city of San Francisco, the movement was founded by Sohan Singh Bhakna and Har Dayal who were its most prominent leaders.

Q. 4. Discuss the boycott of Simon Commission.

Ans: (i) The Simon Commission was constituted to formulate further constitutional reforms for India. No Indian was included in the Commission and it all ― white Commission. Thus, it was clear that the forthcoming reforms, if any, would not fulfil the aspirations of the Indian people.

(ii) India responded to the Commission with an unanimous resolution taken by leaders of every shade of opinion to boycott it.

(iii) All the important cities and towns observed a hartal on 3rd February 1928, the day the members of the Commission arrived in India.

(iv) There were mass rallies and processions and black flag demonstrations against the Commission. The banners, placards and even kites were imprinted with the slogan ‘Go Back Simon.’ Black flags were waved at the Commission wherever it went.

(v) The police repression was harsh and merciless and processions were attacked. Even the most prominent leaders were not spared.

(vi) The most insensitive attack of police was on Lala Lajpat Rai, who was hit by lathis and he succumbed to this attack a few days later. The death of Lala Lajpat Rai created tremendous resentment against the British rule all over.

Q. 5. What were the terms of Gandhi- Irwin Pact?

Ans. The terms of Gandhi-Irwin Pact were as follows:

(i) All people arrested for non-violent protest were to be released immediately.

(ii) Fines that had not been collected were to be remitted.

(iii) Confiscated land that had not been sold off yet was to be returned to peasants. 

(iv) Government employees who had resigned were to be treated leniently.

(v) Villages along the coast were to be given the right to make salt for consumption. 

(vi) The right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing was granted.

Q. 6. Why was second non-co-operation movement launched?

Ans: (i) Gandhiji set off to attend the Second Round Table Conference in August 1931. Meanwhile the British Government’s stand was hardening in Britain and in India.

(ii) Irwin was replaced by Willingdon and the favourable attitude of the Home Government had also changed. As a result not only did Gandhi gain nothing from the discussions at the Round Table but on his return in December 1931 he found that new Viceroy did not wish to meet him. It was as if the colonial government was regretting that they had put the Congress at an equal footing with themselves by making an agreement with them.

(iii) The government had also arrested Jawaharlal Nehru and had repressed the movement of the Khudai Khidmatgars in the North West Frontier Province by arresting their leader Abdul Ghaffar Khan.

(iv) Under these circumstances the Congress decided to launch second non-co- operation movement.

Q. 7. Account for rise of left during 1930-1934.

Ans: (i) The years between 1930 and 1934 was marked by an unprecedented explosion of acts of revolutionary terrorism with its focus in Bengal and Punjab. A total of 92 incidents were reported in 1931 itself that included 9 murders. Exemplary among them was the Chittagong Armory Raid.

(ii) In Chittagong a group of revolutionaries under Surya Sen captured the local armoury, issued an Independence Proclamation in the name of Indian Republican Army and put up a brave fight with the British in the hills of the countryside for several days.

(iii) The number of terrorist cases kept rising in spite of severe repression by the colonial administration. The HSRA had also become very active in the Punjab with 26 incidents reported in 1930 alone.

(iv) The freedom struggle was never confined to the single path of Gandhian satyagraha. It contained the very violent and extremist revolutionary movement, it also comprised of the socialist ideology that came to India after the Russian Revolution, it would also include a military offensive. These different strands of the movement were by no means isolated.

(v) Most of the revolutionaries had participated in the Gandhian non-co-operation movement. In fact the Chittagong armoury was siezed amidst cries of ‘Gandhi raj has come!”

(vi) Chandrashekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh’s revolutionary groups adopted Socialism as did sections of the Congress under Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose.

(vii) Socialism combined the freedom struggle with a clear cut agenda of social equality through organised mass movements that helped to mobilise the working class.

(viii) The initiative of working out the ideology of the communist movement in India was taken up by eminent men like MN Roy who interpreted Marxism and the ideas of Lenin to fit the Indian context. Seven Indians including Roy founded the Communist Party of India at Tashkent in October 1920. Slowly the idea of Communism found favour among many Indian intellectuals and even members of the Congress.

Q. 8. ‘1947 was a year of triumph as well as a great tragedy’ ―Comment.

Ans: (i) India became free on August 15, 1947. The attainment of freedom was a matter of great joy for Indian people. Indian people had won their battle against mighty British imperialism.

(ii) The Indian victory was not absolute one. Alongwith the freedom of India came the partition of the land in two nation states-India and Pakistan.

(iii) The British government had always tried to prevent a unity of the Indian people. They had never agreed that all the Indian people were one with common interests. And so, when they left India they decided to divide the country on the bases of religion.

(iv) The partition of India was also accompanied by communal violence at a very large scale.

(v) Thus, the year of 1947 was a year of triumph of Indian people as they achieved their freedom from foreign rule, but it was also the year of a great tragedy for the unity of Indian people as the country was partitioned into two separate independent nations.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q. 1. When the Indian National Congress was formed?

(a) June 1885 

(b) October 1885

(c) December 1885 

(d) January 1886

Ans: (c) December 1885 

Q. 2. Who of the following was instrumental in the formation of the Indian National Congress? 

(a) A.O. Hume.

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru.

(c) Motilal Nehru.

(d) Rabindra Nath Tagore.

Ans: (a) A.O. Hume.

Q. 3. Who was associated with Poona Sarvajanik Sabha?

(a) Dwarkanath Ganguli.

(b) G.V. Joshi.

(c) Badruddin Tyabji.

(d) Pherozeshal Mehta.

Ans: (b) G.V. Joshi.

Q. 4. The primary issues of concern taken up by the early nationalists belonging to various regional associations were:

(a) Indianisation of government services.

(b) Cotton import duties to be made favourable for Indians.

(c) Opposition to Afghan policy of the

British Government.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 5. What were the ways by which the nationalists in the initial years put forward the main problems of the nation?

(a) Through lectures.

(b) Through writing in newspapers. 

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (c) Both (a) and (b)

Q. 6. In which year the partition of Bengal was announced?

(a) 1885

(b) 1895

(c) 1905

(d) 1907

Ans: (c) 1905

Q. 7. In 1905, the province of Bengal comprised of the present states of:

(a) West Bengal.

(b) Bihar and Jharkhand.

(c) Orissa and Assam.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 8. Formal proclamation of the Swadeshi movement against the announcement of the partition of Bengal was made on:

(a) August 7, 1905

(b) September 7, 1905

(c) October 7, 1905

(d) November 7, 1905

Ans: (a) August 7, 1905

Q. 9. Which popular theatre form was used to spread nationalist feeling?

(a) Jatra.

(b) Liberty.

(c) Ajanta.

(d) Revoli.

Ans: (a) Jatra.

Q. 10. Who founded Ghadr Movement in the city of San Francisco?

(a) Har Dayal.

(b) Sohan Singh Bhakna.

(c) Pherozeshah Mehta.

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b)

Q. 11. Who brought out the revolutionary journal?

(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak. 

(b) Bipin Chandra Pal.

(c) Madame Cama.

(d) Sohan Singh Bhakna.

Ans: (c) Madame Cama.

Q. 12. Home rule movement was started by:

(a) Motilal Nehru.

(b) Badruddin Tyabji.

(c) Annie Besant.

(d) V.D. Savarkar.

Ans: (c) Annie Besant.

Q. 13. The Rowlatt Satyagrah was launched in:

(a) 1917

(b) 1918

(c) 1919

(d) 1920

Ans: (c) 1919

Q. 14. Who founded the Swaraj Party? 

(a) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das.

(b) Pherozeshah Mehta.

(c) Anie Besant and Tilak.

(d) Har Dayal and Mohan Singh. 

Ans: (a) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das.

Q. 15. In which session, the INC adopted a programme of giving up of titles, a boycott of schools, courts and councils and also boycott of foreign goods?

(a) Surat Session.

(b) Bombay Session.

(c) Calcutta Session. 

(d) Lahore Session.

Ans: (c) Calcutta Session. 

Q. 16. The Anushilan Samiti was associated with:

(a) Subhash Bose.

(b) J.M. Sengupta.

(c) W.C. Banerjee.

(d) Romesh Chandra Dutta.

Ans: (a) Subhash Bose.

Q. 17. Kakori train robbery took place in:

(a) April 1924

(b) August 1925

(c) June 1926

(d) December 1927

Ans: (b) August 1925

Q. 18. The Quit India Movement was started in:

(a) April 1942 

(b) May 1942

(c) July 1942 

(d) August 1942

Ans: (d) August 1942

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