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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 16 Understanding Laws
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 16 Understanding Laws and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE – III [CIVICS]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.
Ans. This means that all laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law. Neither a government official, neither a wealthy person nor even the President of the country is above the law.
Example: Jones, a boy of 17 years belongs to an ordinary family. He is caught driving without license. His parents are fined and put in jail.
Utkarsh, the son of a minister of 16 years of age is also caught driving without license but since he is the son of minister; his parents are neither fined nor is he thrown in jail.
This is an example of violation of rule of law.
Q.2. State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India.
Ans. Two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India are:
(i) The colonial law was arbitrary, i.e., nothing was fixed under British rule and it was instead left to one’s choice or judgment.
(ii) The Indian nationalists played a prominent role in the development of the legal spheres in British India.
Q.3. Reread the story board on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.
Ans. People of India came to know from their own direct experiences and through observations and through mass-media that the Indian women were not treated equally and well at their homes and work places.
(i) Several husbands beat their wives.
(ii) Some old women were ill-treated by their sons, daughters-in-law.
(iii) Some women (unmarried/widows/ divorce or having no kids) were verbally abused or insulting remarks were passed.
(iv) Some women who gave birth to only daughters, not a son were also abused.
Indian women wanted protection against being beaten, from all sorts of physical or social violence.
Throughout the 1990s the need for a new law for giving protection to women was raised in different forums. In 1999, a group of lawyers known as lawyers collective, law students and social activists, after a nationwide consultation, took the lead in drafting the domestic violence bill. Some NGOs started the women movement. The Parliament standing committee in its report accepted most of the demands of women’s group. Finally a bill was introduced in the Parliament in 2005. After being passed by the Parliament and getting the approval of the President, the Domestic Violence Act came into effect in 2006.
Q.4. Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentence on page 44-45. They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.
Ans. (i) The word ‘They’ in the above passage stands for the Indian nationalists who were participating in freedom.
(ii) The nationalists wanted ‘rule of law’ during the colonial period.
(iii) They protested against the law that any one protesting or criticizing the British Government could be arrested without due trial.
(iv) The legal rights of Indians were defended.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q. 1. What are laws?
Ans. The body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by political authority are called laws.
Q. 2. When does Parliament need to change a law?
Ans. Parliament needs to change a law when a large number of people begin to feel that a wrong law has been passed.
Q. 3. Define the controversial law.
Ans. Controversial law refers to the law that favors one group and disregards the other.
Q. 4. What was the Rowlatt Act about?
Ans. According to Rowlatt Act 1919, the British Government could imprison people without due trial.
Q. 5. What can the people do if they find any law unfavorable for them?
Ans. If people find any law unfavorable for them, they can approach the court to decide on the issue. The court has the power to modify or cancel laws if it finds that they don’t adhere to the constitution.
Q. 6. What was the Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005?
Ans. According to the Hindu Succession Amendment Act; sons, daughters and their mother can get an equal share of family property.
Q. 7. What happened when the Indian Constitution came into existence?
Ans. When the Indian Constitution came into existence law for the country began to be formed by our representatives.
Q. 8. When was the Sedition Act passed?
Q. 9. Why is their necessity for some rules to keep the public space open?
Ans. There is necessity for rules to keep the public space open so that people can walk on the pavements easily.
Q. 10. What is Act called before it is passed by the parliament?
Ans. The Act is called the Bill before it is passed by the Parliament.
Q. 11. In which House the money bill can be introduced?
Ans. Money bills can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha.
Q. 12. What was the idea behind the Sedition Act or why was the Sedition Act arbitrary?
Ans. Any person protesting or criticizing the British Government could be arrested without due trial. It was not based on rule of law. So it was arbitrary.
Q. 13. Who makes laws for a country?
Ans. Representatives of the people in the parliament makes laws for the country, which are implemented by the executive.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q. 1. “During the ancient period of India, there was no equality of law”. Explain the statement.
How was the system of law during ancient times in India?
Ans. The system of law during the ancient times in India had the following features:
(a) In ancient India, there were innumerable and often overlapping local laws.
(b) Different communities enjoyed different degrees of autonomy in administering these laws.
(c) In some cases, the punishment that two persons received for the same crime varied depending on their caste backgrounds with lower castes being more harshly penalized.
Q. 2. How are laws important for us?
Ans. Laws are important for us because:
(i) They regularize the civic life of the community.
(ii) Laws are important for the smooth running of the society as well as for establishing peace and order in the state.
(iii) People cannot live together for any length of time without having certain recognized rules of conduct.
Q. 3. What is the significance of Women Protection Law, 2005?
Ans. Women Protection Law is significant because:
(i) The women can get a protection order against any further violence.
(ii) It recognises the right of women to live in a shared household.
(iii) Women can get momentary relief to meet their expenses including medical costs.
Q. 4. Do you agree that hawking and street vending should be made illegal?
Ans. Hawkers and street vendors provide essential services cheaply and efficiently to the millions living in a large city. This also provides them their means of livelihood. So, hawking and street vending should not be made illegal. However, this activity should be allowed during a fixed time-period of the day.
Q. 5. What do you understand by rule of law? Who introduced this law?
Ans. Rule of law implies:
(a) All laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law.
(b) Neither a government official, nor a wealthy person nor even the president of the country is above the law.
The rule of law was introduced by the British colonialists.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q. 1. What do you understand by unpopular laws? How can people express discontent against unpopular laws in a democracy?
Ans. Laws which are constitutionally valid and hence legal, but are unpopular and unacceptable to people because they feel that the intention behind it is unfair and harmful. For example, the municipal laws.
People can express their discontent against unpopular laws by holding public meetings, write about it in newspaper, report to TV news channels etc.
Q. 2. How does a bill becomes a law?
Ans. Bills have to pass through various stages before they are finally passed.
These stages are:
(a) First is the stage of introduction. Money bills can be introduced only in Lok Sabha while ordinary bills can be introduced in either of the two houses of the Parliament..
(b) During the second stage the bill is discussed clause by clause.
(c) During the third stage, the bill is put to vote and if passed by a simple majority of members present (and voting), it is sent to the other house, where the same procedure is followed.
(d) However, if there is disagreement between the two houses, the final decisions is taken in a joint session of both the houses where the bill is passed by a majority of members of both the houses present and voting.
(e) Finally when both the houses pass the bill, it is sent to the president for his/her assent. After getting the president’s assent the bill becomes a law or an act.
Q. 3. Explain the several ways in which Indians played a major role in the evolution of rule of law during the colonial period.
What did the Indian nationalists and other groups do against the arbitrary laws of the British?
Ans. Indian nationalists did the following, against the arbitrary laws of the British:
(a) They began protesting and criticizing the arbitrary use of authority by the British.
(b) They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law including ideas of justice.
(c) By the end of the 19th century, the Indian legal profession also began emerging and demanded respect in colonial courts. They began to use law to defend the legal rights of the Indians.
(d) Indian judges also began to play a greater role in making decisions.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL
Q. 1. How do new laws came about?
Ans. The new laws came about as:
(i) The Parliament has an important role in law making.
(ii) The role of citizens is also crucial in helping the Parliament in framing the laws.
(iii) From establishing the need for a new law to its being passed, at every stage of process, the voice of the citizen is a crucial element.
Q. 2. Define the domestic violence in your terms and the law that was passed to stop this violence.
Ans. The protection of women from Domestic Violence Act came into existence in 2005, and it refers to the understanding of the term ‘domestic’ to involve all the females who live or have lived together in a shared household with their male partner who is perpetrating the violence.
Hence the term Domestic Violence means injury or harm or throat of injury or abuse or harm caused by the adult male, usually the husband, against his wife. Injury or harm may be caused by physically beating up the women or by emotionally abusing her. Abuse of the women can also include verbal, sexual and economic abuse.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q. What is the role of the citizens in the formulation of new laws?
Ans. Role of the citizens in the formulation of new laws can be explained as follows:
(a) Role of the citizens is crucial in helping parliament frame different concerns that people might have into laws.
(b) From establishing the need for a new law to its being passed, at every stage of the process the voice of the citizens is a crucial element.
(c) This voice can be heard through TV reports, newspaper editorials, radio broadcasts, local meetings.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct option
1. Municipal Council is for _____________.
(a) Smaller urban area.
(b) Larger urban area.
(c) Both (a) & (b).
(d) None of these.
Ans. (a) Smaller urban area.
2. How many subjects are in the concurrent list?
Ans. (d) 47
3. When someone violate the law, we should immediately inform
Ans. (d) Police.
4. When did Jallianwala Bagh incident take place?
(a) 13 April, 1917
(b) 13 April, 1919
(c) 13 June, 1918
(d) 13 April, 1915
Ans. (b) 13 April, 1919
5. What does DCP stand for?
(a) Delhi Commissioner of Police.
(b) Delhi Central Police.
(c) Deputy Commissioner of Police.
(d) Deputy Control Police.
Ans. (c) Deputy Commissioner of Police.
6. When did the Rowlatt Act came into effect?
(a) 10th March 1919
(b) 10th April 1920
(c) 10th March 1920
(d) 13th April 1919
Ans. (a) 10th March 1919
7. The ___________ Act tried to gag the public opinion which was a great humiliation for the Indians.
(a) Ilbert Bill.
(c) Vernacular Press.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) Vernacular Press.
8. ‘Rule of law’ was defined by ____________.
(b) Glade stone.
Ans. (a) Dyasi.
9. According to _____________ every individual charge of a crime has to be given fair trial.
Ans. (b) Constitution.
10. In December 2002, the standing committee submitted its recommendations to:
(a) Rajya Sabha.
(b) Lok Sabha.
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(d) Neither (a) nor (b).
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b).
11. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act came into effect in ____________.
Ans. (c) 2005
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. Even the President can be impeached for any ___________ of the law.
2. Mostly laws are good because they aim at the _____________ of the people.
3. 26 January was a day to establish ____________.
Ans. High Court.
4. No child below the age of ____________ shall be employed to work in any factory.
Ans. 14 years.
5. All laws apply equally to all the ____________ of the country.
6. The body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political authority are called ____________.
7. New law on environment are introduced due to _____________.
Ans. Bhopal gas tragedy.
8. Laws are necessary for _____________.
Ans. Protection of people from unfair means.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
A. Look at the picture and answer the questions that follows:
Q.1. Who is the lady shown in the picture?
Ans. Rosa Parks, an African- American woman.
Q.2. Why did she refuse to give up her seat on a bus to white man?
Ans. She refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man as she was protesting the law on segregation that divided up all public spaces, including the street between the whites and the African-Americans.
Q.3. When did this happen?
Ans. This happened on 1 December 1955.
Q.4. How was her refusal important in history?
Ans. Her refusal marked the start of the Civil Rights Movement in USA.
Q.5. Which act was passed as a result of the movement?
Ans. Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964, which prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national original in the U.S.A.