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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 15 Why Do We Need A Parliament
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 15 Why Do We Need A Parliament and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Why Do We Need A Parliament
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE – III [CIVICS]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Q.1. Why do you think our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote?
Ans. Our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote because:
(a) The nationalist had started openly criticizing the British government and make demands.
(b) As for back as 1885, the Indian National Congress demanded that there be elected members in the legislation with a right to discuss the budget and ask questions.
(c) The Government of India Act 1909 allowed for some elected representation. However, they did not allow for all adults to vote nor could people participate in the decision making.
(d) With the coming of independence, it was felt that the government had to be sensitive to people’s need and demands. This led the nationalist movement to support the idea that all adults have the right to vote.
Q.2. In this 2004 map of Parliamentary constituencies alongside, roughly identify the constituencies in your state. What is the name of the MP from your constituency? How many MPs does your state have? Why are certain constituencies coloured green while others are coloured blue?
Ans. Self-study for students. Take help from your teachers or others educated persons of your area.
Q.3. You have read in Chapter 1 that the Parliamentary form of government’ that exists in India has three tiers. This includes the Parliament (central government) and the various States Legislature (state governments). Fill in the following table with information on the various representatives from your area.
|State Government||Central Government|
|Which political party/parties is/are currently in power?|
|Who (name) is the current representative from your area?|
|Which political parties currently form the Opposition?|
|When were elections last held?|
|When will the next elections be held?|
|How many women representatives are there (from your state)?|
Ans. Self-study for the students. Take help persons of your area.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What is the Parliament?
Ans. The parliament of India (Sansad) is the supreme law-making institution.
Q.2. Name the two houses of Parliament.
Ans. The Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
Q.3. Why is Rajya Sabha called the permanent body?
Ans. The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution; therefore, it is also called the permanent body.
Q.4. Who nominates the 12 members of Rajya Sabha?
Ans. The President of India nominates the 12 members of the Rajya Sabha.
Q.5. When did India become independent?
Ans. India become independent on 15 August 1947.
Q.6. What is the tenure of Lok Sabha?
Ans. The Lok Sabha is normally elected for five years. It may be dissolved by the president before the expiry of its term. Its life can be increased by 6 months at a time in abnormal condition subject to a maximum of 3 years.
Q.7. What is the role of opposition party?
Ans. The opposition parties play a critical role in the healthy functioning of a democracy. They highlight the drawbacks in various policies and programmes of the government and mobilise popular support for their own policies.
Q.8. What is a constituency?
Ans. A constituency is a geographical area represented by a Member of Parliament.
Q.9. What do you understand by the executive?
Ans. The executive refers to a group of persons who work together to implement the laws made by the parliament.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Why was parliamentary form of government chosen in India?
Ans. (a) India was influenced by the British parliamentary system of government.
(b) The harmonious cooperation between the executive and the legislature in the parliamentary form of government ensures efficiency.
(c) The parliamentary form of government is considered more elastic and flexible as compared to the presidential form of government because in it there is no fixed tenure of the executive.
(d) The executive being responsible to the parliament reduces the changes of dictatorship.
Q.2. What is a bicameral legislature and Unicameral legislature?
Ans. In India few States posses bicameral Legislature that is the existence of two houses such as the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. In other words a Legislature that has two houses is called bicameral Legislature. Members of either house are referred to as Members of Parliament (MPs) whereas in the Unicameral States only one house exists and thus most of the state have a Legislative Assembly.
Q.3. What are the essential qualifications for a member of the Lok Sabha?
Ans. The essential qualifications for a member of the Lok Sabha are:
(a) He should be a citizen of India.
(b) He should be above the age of 25 years.
(c) He should not be bankrupt or mentally unstable.
(d) He should not be a criminal.
(e) He should not hold any office of profit under the government.
Q.4. Why are some seats reserved in the parliament for SCs and STs?
Ans. Some seats are reserved in the Parliament for SCs and STs because:
(a) When interests and experiences separate us it is important to ensure that communities that have been marginalized are given adequate representation.
(b) The MPs elected from SCs and STs will be familiar with and can represent Dalit and Adivasi interests in Parliament.
Q.5. How are members of Lok Sabha elected?
Ans. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected through the general elections. Elections take place every five years. For the purpose of elections, the country is divided into constituencies. Only one person is elected from each constituency. All citizens above 18 years have right to vote. A single winner is chosen in a given constituency by virtue of his/her getting more votes than any other individual representatives.
Q. 6. In what ways has the parliament, integrated marginalized communities for political participation.
“The Parliament has more and more people from different backgrounds.” Explain the statement.
Ans. Parliament consists of representatives of the people, which belong from different backgrounds.
(a) There are more and more rural members as also members from many regional parties.
(b) Groups and people that were till now unrepresented are beginning to get elected to the parliament.
(c) There has also been an increase in political participation from the Dalit and backward castes and minorities. Some seats are reserved in the Parliament for SCs and STs.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Write a short note on Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Ans. The Parliament of India consists of the President, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Lok Sabha: (a) It is also known as the House of the people.
(b) There are 543 elected and 2 nominated members in Lok Sabha.
(c) The term of Lok Sabha is 5 yrs which can be extended during a national emergency.
(d) After the Lok Sabha elections, a list is prepared showing how many MPs belong to each political party.
(e) For a political party to form the government, they must have a majority of elected MPs.
(f) The P.M of India is the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha.
Rajya Sabha: (a) It is also known as the Upper house of the parliament.
(b) There are 233 elected members plus 12 nominated by the president.
(c) The Rajya Sabha functions primarily as the representative of the states of India in the Parliament.
(d) Rajya Sabha initiates the legislation and a bill is required to pass through the rajya sabha in order to become a law.
(e) The members of rajya sabha are elected by the elected members of legislative assemblies of various states.
Q.2. What is a question hour? Explain its significance.
Ans. Generally the first hour of a sitting of Lok Sabha is devoted to questions and that hour is called the question hour.
It is significant for various reasons such as:
(a) The question hour is an important mechanism through which MPS can elicit information about the working of the government.
(b) By asking questions the government is alerted to its short comings and also comes to know the opinion of the people through their representatives in the parliaments i.e. the MPs.
(c) Question hour is a very important way through which the parliament controls the executive.
Q.3. Why do we need a parliament?
What are the functions of parliament?
Ans. We need a parliament because of the following:
(a) To select the national government: One of the most important functions of the parliament is to selected the national government. The parliament in India consists of the president, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Since there are 543 elected plus 2 nominated members in Lok Sabha, to have a majority a party should have at least half the number i.e. 272 members or more.
(b) To control, guide and inform the government: The question hour is a very important way through which the parliament controls the executive. The opposition highlights drawbacks in various policies and programmes of the government and mobilise popular support for their own policies. In addition, all matters dealing with financing, the parliament’s approval is crucial for the government. This is one of the several ways in which the parliament controls, guides and informs the government.
(c) Law Making: Law making is a significant function of the parliament.
Q.4. What does Indian Parliament consist of? What are the features of the Parliamentary system of Government?
Ans. The Indian Parliament consist of the President and the two houses of the Parliament: the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
The features of the Parliamentary system of the Government are as follows:
(i) The head of the State (President) and the head of the Government (Prime Minister) are separate.
(ii) The President is the nominal head while all powers are exercised by the Prime Minister.
(iii) There is clear cut separations of the powers between the Executive and the Legislature.
(iv) The Executive is responsible to the Legislature for its actions.
Q.5. “Though the President is the Constitutional Head of the State, the true Head of State is the Prime Minister”. Do you agree with this statement?
Ans. As we know that the President of India is the Head of the State and first citizen of India, as well as the commander in Chief of the Indian armed forces. The president is elected by the elected Members of the Parliament of India as well as of State Legislature and serves for a term of five years.
The president of India has many power which can be classified under the following heads:
(i) Executive Powers.
(ii) Legislature Powers.
(iii) Financial Powers.
(iv) Judicial Powers.
(v) Emergency Powers.
(vi) Military Powers.
(vii) Diplomatic Powers.
On the other hand the true head of the state is the Prime Minister which is also the Head of the Council of Minister and the leader of the majority party in Parliament. The Prime Minister leads the Executive branch of the Government of India. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. The council of Ministers is also formed under the leadership of the Prime Minister. Prime Minister is the real head of the Union Executive. He heads the Central Council Minister and presides over the Council meetings. The president acts on the Prime Minister’s advice. So at the end we can agree that the true Head of State is Prime Minister.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL
Q.1. Why was parliamentary form of government chosen in India after independence?
Ans. After independence India choose a Parliamentary form of government, as:
(a) It leads to harmonious cooperation between executive and the legislative and ensure efficiency.
(b) It is also considered as more elastic and flexible as compared to the presidential form of government.
Q.2. How is a national government selected?
Ans. National government is selected in the following manner:
(a) The Parliament in India consists of the President, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
(b) After the lok sabha elections, a list is prepared showing how many MPs belong to each political party.
(c) For a political party to form the government they must have a majority of elected MPs.
(d) Since there are 543 elected members plus 2 nominated members in Lok Sabha, to have a majority a party should have at least half the number i.e. 272 members or more.
(e) The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q. How does the individual give approval to the Government?
Ans. (i) The individual gives approval to the government through elections.
(ii) People would elect their representatives to the parliament and then one group from these elected representatives forms the government.
(iii) The parliament which consists of all the elected members controls and guides the government.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.I. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct option
1. The Parliament is begin with _____________.
(a) Question hour.
(b) Zero hour.
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(a) None of these.
Ans. (a) Question hour.
2. ‘EVM’ means:
(a) Electronic Voting Machine.
(b) Election Voting Machine.
(c) Equal Vote Measure.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (a) Electronic Voting Machine.
3. In which year was the first general election under the new constitution held?
Ans. (c) 1951-42
4. Who presides over the Rajya Sabha?
(a) The Prime Minister of India.
(b) The Vice-President of India.
(c) The President of India.
(d) The Speaker.
Ans. (b) The Vice-President of India.
5. _____________ was the first speaker of the Lok Sabha in India.
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
(c) G.V Mavalankar.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) G.V Mavalankar.
6. ‘NDA’ means:
(a) National Democratic Alliance.
(b) National Defense Academy.
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(d) None of these.
Ans. (a) National Democratic Alliance.
7. Who is the head of India state?
(a) The Prime Minister.
(b) The President.
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(d) None of these.
Ans. (b) The President.
8. The Rajya Sabha can have up to ______________ members.
Ans. (b) 250
II. Fill in the blanks with the following words:
Universal adult franchise, MLAs, representative, directly.
Democratic governments in our times are usually referred to as representative democracies, people do not participate
(i) ______________ but, instead, choose their.
(ii) ______________ through an election process. These
(iii) ______________ meet and make decision for for the entire population.
These days, a government cannot call itself democratic. unless it allows what is known as
(iv) ______________ This means that all adult citizens in the country are allowed to vote.
Ans. (i) directly.
(iv) Universal adult franchise.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
I. Look at the picture and answer the question:
1. What does this picture depict?
Ans. This picture depict the parliament house.
2. Name the two houses of parliament?
Ans. The two houses of parliament are Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
3. Name the three main organs of the parliament and describe their functions?
Ans. Name of the three main organs of the parliament are: The Legislature, the executive and the Judiciary. The legislature frames the law, the executive implements the law and the Judiciary interprets the laws.