Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks Beads and Bones The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board HS 2nd Year History Chapter 1 Bricks Beads and Bones and select needs one.
Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks Beads and Bones
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Q.8. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.
Ans : Archaeologists reconstruct the past by its material evidences. The material evidence include pottery, tools, ornaments household objects. The materials that survive are generally made of stone, burnt clay and metals.
i) The first step is recovering objects. Following this archaeologists classify finds. The classification is of two types.
a) On the basis of material such as stone, clay, metals, bone, ivory .
b) The second classification is on the basis of function. The archaeologists decide the function of the artefact e.g. whether it was a tool or ornament or meant for ritual rites. Reconstruction of the function is a complicated task. It is done in numerous ways and hence it is subjective, one way is to construct the function by its resemblance with present day things beads, querns, blades, stones, pots.
ii) Another way is to identify function by investigating the context in which it was found : was it found in a house/drain, grave or kiln.
iii) Some archaeologists resort to indirect evidence. Though traces of cotton have been found at some Harappan sites, to find out about clothing they depend on depictions in sculpture.
iv) Some archaeologists develop frames of reference. The first Harappan seal that was found could not be understood till archeologists had a context in which to place it-both in terms of cultural sequence in which it was found and in terms of a comparison with finds in Mesopotamia.
It is important to note that while archeological evidence is critical in reinterpreting the past, the use of only early archeological evidence is fraught with problems. Since there are many ways of interpreting some archeological evidence the reconstructions are often speculative e.g. was the great Bath a ritual structure? How widespread was literacy?
Sometimes the reconstructions are very divergent e.g. some interpret the small conical objects made of lapis lazuli, jasper and other stones as lingas while others as board games. The problem of interpreting archaeological evidence is best illustrated in the attempts to reconstruct Harappan religious practices.
Example : In some seals, a figure shown seated cross legged in a ‘yogic’ posture sometimes surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-shiva, ‘Pashupati’ that is, an early form of one of the major deities of Hinduism. the earliest religious text, the Rigveda mentions a god named Rudra, which is a name used for Shiva in later puranic traditions. But, Rudra in the Rigveda is neither depicted as Pashupati nor as a Yogi. This depiction does not match. This has led some scholars to suggest it as a ‘shaman’
Q.9. Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society.
Ans : Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers, and that everybody enjoyed equal status. Others feel there was no single ruler but several, that Mohenjodaro had a seperate ruler, Harappa another, and so forth, yet others argue that there was a single state, given the similarity in artfacts, the evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material. As of now, the last theory seems the most plausible, as it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions.
i) There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in Harappan society. Take for instance the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery seals, weights and bricks.
ii) Notably, bricks though obviously not produced in any single centre, were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to Gujarat. We have also seen that settlements were strategically set up in specific locations for various reasons.
iii) Besides labour was mobilised for making bricks and for the construction of massive walls and platforms.
Who organised these activities? I think the rulers might have performed all these works.
Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers plans and layouts of the city were prepared. By buildings, places, forts, tanks, wells, canals, Granaries were constructed and cleanliness was maintained under the over all supervision of the ruler.
The ruler might have taken interest in economy of the state or city states. He use to inspire the farmer to increase agricultural production. He use to motivate the craftsman to promote different handicrafts.
Internal as well as external trade was promoted by the ruler. He use to issue common expectable coins or seals, weights and measurements.
During the Natural calamity such as flood earthquake, epidemic etc. the ruler use to provide grains and other eatables to the effected people. He use to play active to defend cities or state from foreign attack.
Q.10. On Map 1, use a pencil to circle sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. Mark an X against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites where raw materials were found.
Project (Any one)
Q.11. Find out if there are any museums in your town visit one of them and write a report on any ten items describing how old they are, where they were found, and why you think are on display.
Ans : For self study try to go to state Museum, Guwahati under the guidance of history teacher or any Museum near by your town.
Ten items :
i) Seals related with Harappan civilisation.
ii) Jar of Harappa.
iv) Picture of bathroom or courtyard of Mohenjodaro.
v) Bronze vessels .
vi) Beads related with Indus valley civilisation.
vii) Pots .
viii) Toys .
ix) Some stone implements querns .
x) Pictures or design of drains related with Harappan culture.
Most of the above items are of the Harappan and they are nearly five thousands years old. They were found at different sites/cities places related with Indus valley civilisation.
These all items are display to gives us about socio-economic and cultural life (at least some related aspects) of the people of Harappa.
Q.12. Collect illustrations of ten things made of stone, metal and clay produced and used at present. Compare these with the pictures of the Harappan civilisation in this chapter, and discuss the similarities and differences that you find.
Ans : Collection of different things : it is to be done by the student themself.
Report list things made of Stone, metal and clay.
Stone : Statues, toys, tools, implements, beads, model Metal :
Knife, sword, Ring, Axe, Ornaments, Coins, Toys, Machine, Idle, Model, Signboard, Lock, Key, Scissors.
Clay : Pots, Toys, Model.
The people of Harappan used to make idle of stone, metal and clay. They used to make toys of clay, metal and stone. Tools and implements were made of stone and metal by the Harappans.
Differences : Stone, metal and clay use to play most important role in the life of Harappans then the people of modern society.
The people of modern society more advanced technology and all type of machine which can be used for preparing different things of stone, metal and clay than people of Harappans.
C. Passage Based Question & Answers :
Read the following extract and answer the questions based on it:
THE MOST ANCIENT SYSTEM YET DISCOVERED
About the drains, Mackay noted : “It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.” Every house was connected to the street drains. The min channels were made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with loose bricks that could be moved for cleaning. In some cases, limestone was used for the covers. House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled while waste water flowed out into the street drains. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. It is a wonder of archaeology that “little heaps of material, mostly sand, have frequently been found lying alongside drainage channels, which shows…. that the debris was not always carted away when the drain was cleared.”
a) Which historian described the drainage system of the Indus Valley Civilization ? Name the book as well.
b) Describe the drainage system of the Harappans.
c) What evidence has been found by archaeologists to reconstruct the dietary practices of the Harappan people?
Ans : a) The drainage system was described by Ernest Mackay in his book Early Indus Civilization, 1948 .
b) Drainage system : Every house was connected to street drains, The street drains were covered with loose bricks that could be removed for cleaning. House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled and waste water flowed into the street drains, Such drainage systems were not only found in Mohenjodaro but in smaller settlements as well.
c) Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct dietary practices from remains of charred grains, seeds and animal bones,
These were studied by archaeo-botanists and archaeo- zoologists and valuable information was got from their findings.
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