Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters HS 2nd Year Economics Notes, AHSEC Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence, Class 12 Economics Question Answer In English Notes and select needs one.
Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence
Also, you can read the NCERT book Notes Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of AHSEC All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here in Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Indian Economy on the eve of independence.
Indian Economy on the eve of independence
PART – B
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWERS
1. Define occupational structure.
Ans : The economy which refers to the distribution of work force of an economy in different occupations.
2. What is meant by stagnant economy?
Ans : The economy which grows at a very low rate is called stagnant economy.
3. What is meant by depleted economy?
Ans : It is an economy whose stock of capital assets gets exhausted or eroded.
4. Which is regarded as the defining year to mark the demographic transition from its first to the second decisive stage?
Ans : 1921
5. When was India’ official census operation undertaken?
Ans : In 1881.
6. What is economic infrastructure?
Ans : It is the basis facilities and services on which economic development is based.
7. What is commercialisation of agriculture?
Ans : It means production of crops for the market rather than for self consumption.
B. SHORT & LONG TYPE QUESTION AND ANSWER:
1. What was the focus of the economic policies pursued by the colonial govt. In India? What were the impacts of these policies?
Ans: Self interest was the focus of the economic policies pursued by the colonial Government in India. The main objective was concerned more with the protection and promotion of the economic interest of their home country than with the development of the Indian economy.
The impact was that, such policies brought about a fundamental change in the structure of the Indian economy – transforming the country into supplier of raw materials and consumer of finished industrial products from Britain.
2. Name some notable economists who estimated India’s per capita income during the colonial period.
Ans : (a) Dadabhai Naoraji (b) Findlay Shiras (c) R.C. Desai (d) V.K.R.V. Rao
3. What were the main causes of India’s agricultural stagnation during the colonial period?
Ans: Reasons were-
a) Low level of technology used.
b) Lack of irrigation facilities.
c) Less use of fertilizers.
4. Name those industries which were in operation in our economy at the time of independence.
Ans: The name of the industries which were in operation in our economy at the time of independence are
(a) Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)
(b) Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO)
(c) Cotton and Jute Textile Mills.
5. What was the two-fold motive behind the systematic de-industrialization effected by the British in pre-independent India?
Ans: Two-fold motives were –
(a) India was the main exporter of raw material. The main objective was to reduce it and to open modern industries in Britain.
(b) To turn India into a big market for their finished goods.
6. The traditional handicrafts industries were ruined under the British rule. Do you agree with this view. ? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans: The indigenous industries declined during the British rule. These industries created unemployment and new consumer demand in the Indian consumer market. This demand was met by importing cheap manufactured goods from Britain. In this way in palace of handicraft industries, modern industrial base was developed for the benefit of the British Government. In this way, traditional handicraft industries were ruined under the British rule.
7. What objectives did the British intend to achieve through their policies of infrastructure development in India?
Ans: The basic objective behind infrastructure development was not the provide basic amenities to the Indian people but to sub-serve various colonial interests.
They are explained below –
a) Roads: The built roads served the interests of mobilizing the army and shifting raw materials.
b) Railways: The most important contribution of the British was to introduce railways in India of 1850.
c) Water Transport: Inland and oceanic waterways were also developed during the British rule.
d) Posts: The postal services were inadequate during British rule.
e) Telegraphs: The British Government introduced expensive system of electric telegraph in India. This system was useful for maintaining law and order
8. Critically appraise some of the short falls of the industrial policy pursued by the British colonial administration.
Ans: Some shortfalls were –
a) Very limited area of operation of the public sector
b) The growth rate of the new industrial sector and its contribution to the GDP remained very small.
c) There was hardly any capital goods industry to help promote further industrialisation in India.
d) The progress of modern industry remained very slow.
9. What do you understand by the drain of Indian wealth during the colonial period?
Ans: Economic drain means transfer of wealth from one country to other. During the colonial period Indian wealth was remitted to England. In lieu of it India received nothing. For example, excess exports were made to meet the deficit on current account in England but India gained nothing.
10. Which is regarded as the defining year to mark the demographic transition from its first to the second decisive stage?
11. Give a quantitative appraisal of India’s demographic profile during the colonial period.
Ans: Before 1921, India was in the first stage of demographic transition. The various social development indicators were also not quite encouraging. The overall literacy level was less than 16%. Again, female literacy level was at a negligible low to about 7%. The infant morality rate was quite alarming –about 218 per thousand. Life expectancy was also very low 32 years in an average.
12. Highlight the salient features of India’s pre-independence occupational structure.
Ans: Main features were –
a) There were main sectors during the British rule of occupation, viz. Primary, secondary and tertiary.
b) About 70%-75% of working persons are engaged in agriculture, 10% in manufacturing and 15% – 20% in service sector.
c) Agriculture on the primary sector occupied the dominant position in comparison to other sectors.
d) The progress in all the sectors were not identical.
13. Underscore some of India’s most crucial economic challenges at the time of independence.
Ans : India’s most crucial economic challenges at the time of independence are:
a) To remove unemployment and poverty.
b) To improve health and education facilities.
c) To develop infrastructures, like industries, electricity, etc.
d) To become self reliant or self-dependent.
e) To adopt modernisation in every sector of the economy.
14. When was India’s first official census operation undertaken?
Ans : In 1881.
15. Indicate the volume and direction of trade at the time of independence.
Ans : Volume: At the time of independence the volume of India’s trade increased tremendously. Exports were more than imports. Some exportable goods were-wheat, rice, sugar, precious stones etc. Again, some importable goods were- wool, steel, copper, paper etc.
Direction: More than half of India’s foreign trade was made with Britain. The rest was allowed with other countries like China, Cylon (Sri Lanka ) and Persia. (Iran)
16. Discuss the positive contribution of the British rule in India?
Ans : The positive contributions are-
a) Development of roads and railways.
b) Development of modern industries.
c) Promotion of women education and English education.
d) Development of water transport and ports for trade and commerce.
e) Development of posts and telegraphs.
f) Development of aerodrums.
17. Name those industries which were in operation in our economy at the time of independence.
a) Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)
b) Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO)
c) Cotton and Jute Textile Mills.
18. What are the effects of decline of Indian industries during the British Rule?
Ans: (a) Decline of Indian traditional domestic industries like handicrafts.
(b) Promotion of industrialisation in Britain.
19. What is Colonialism?
Ans : The practice of acquiring colonies by conquest. It was one of the ways to extend powers, control or rule by a country over other country.
The main feature of colonialism is exploitations.
20. Point out the structure or sector classification of Indian Economy?
Ans : Following are the sectorial classification-
(a) Primary sector. e.g.: agricultural, fisheries, forestry etc.
(b) Secondary sector. e.g.: manufacturing, construction, gas etc.
(c) Territory sector. e.g.: Transport, Banking, Insurance etc.
21. What is structural change?
Ans: Economic growth of a country brings structure change. These changes are related to the contribution of different sectors in economy. As there is development of an economy the importance of primary sector continues to fall whereas the importance of secondary and tertiary sector continues to rise. This change from one sector to another is known as structural change.
22. What is a tariff? What are its main objective?
Ans: A tax or a duty which can be levied on imports.
Its main objectives are –
(a) to raise government revenue.
(b) to protect domestic industry from subsidized and low-wage rates.
(c) to boost domestic employment
(d) to ease a deficit on the balance of payments (BOP)
23. What was the position of basic infrastructure during British Rule?
Ans: They are explained below –
(a) Roads: The built roads served the interests of mobilizing the army and shifting raw materials.
(b) Railways: The most important contribution of the British was to introduce railways in India in 1850.
(c) Water Transport: Inland and oceanic waterways were also developed during the British rule.
(d) Posts: The postal services were inadequate during British rule.
(e) Telegraphs: The British Government introduced an expensive system of electric telegraphs in India. This system was useful for maintaining law and order.
Hi, I’m Dev Kirtonia, Founder & CEO of Dev Library. A website that provides all SCERT, NCERT 3 to 12, and BA, B.com, B.Sc, and Computer Science with Post Graduate Notes & Suggestions, Novel, eBooks, Biography, Quotes, Study Materials, and more.