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Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 System of Representational Democracy
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System of Representational Democracy
Chapter – 3
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – A
Q.1. Which of the following resembles most a direct
(a) Discussion in a family meeting.
(b) Election of the class monitor.
(c) choice of a candidate by a political party.
(d) Decisions taken by the Gram Sabha.
(e) Opinion palls conducted by the media.
Ans : (d) Decisions taken by the Gram Sabha is the best example of direct democracy
Q.2. Which of the following takes are not performed by the election commission?
(a) Preparing the electoral rolls.
(b) Nominating the candidates.
(c) Setting up polling booths.
(d) Implementing the model code of conduct.
(e) supervising the panchayat elections.
Ans : (e) Supervising the panchayat elections is not performed by the election commission.
Q.3. Which of the following is common to the method of election of the members of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha?
(a) Every citizens above the age of 18 is an eligible voter.
(b) Voter can give preference order for different candidates.
(c) Every vote has equal value.
(d) The winner must get more than half the votes.
Ans : (a) The only common thing on both the elections is that every citizen above the age of 18 is an eligible voter. In the Lok sabha election the voters elect their candidate directly but in Rajya Sabha they elect their candidate indirectly.
Q.4. In the First past the past system, that candidate is declared winner who –
(a) Secures the largest number of postal ballots.
(b) Belongs to the party that has highest number of votes in the country.
(c) Attain first position by securing more than 50% votes.
(d) Has more votes than any other candidate in the constituency.
Ans : (d) The candidate has more votes than any other candidate in the constituency.
Q.5. What is the difference between the system of reservation of constituencies and the system of separate electorate? Why did the constitution makers reject the latter?
Ans : The separate electorate was started by the British government that the Muslims, Sikhs and some other minorities elect their representatives by their own separate vote. But it was most harmful. As a result the nation resorted to the partition.In separate electorates, the candidates are elected by those voters who belong to that particular community. But in the system of reservation of constituencies all voters in a constituency are eligible to vote but candidates must belong to only that particular community for which the seat is reserved. The constitution provides for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and state Legislative Assemblies for the scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes. The latter the system of separate electorate was rejected by the constitution makers because they were aware that the system destroyed the spirit of national integration.
Q.6. Which of the following statements are incorrect? Identify and correct them by substituting, adding or rearranging only one word or phase.
(a) FPTP system is followed for all the elections in India.
(b) Election commission does not supervise panchayat and Municipal elections.
(c) President of India can not remove an Election commissioner.
(d) Appointment of more than one Election commissioner in the election commission is mandatory.
Ans : (a) This statement is incorrect. The correct statement FPTP system is followed for all elections in India except election of the president, the vice President and for the elections to the Rajya Sabha and Vidhan Parishad.
(b) Election commission does not supervise panchayat and Municipal elections. This statement is correct.
(c) This statement is incorrect. The correct statement is: The president can remove an Election commissioner.
(d) This statement is incorrect. The correct statement is:
The appointment of more than once election commissioner is not mandatory.
Q.7. India electoral system aims at insuring representations of society disadvantaged sections. However we are yet to have even 10 percent woman member in our legislatures. What measures would you suggest to improve the situation?
Ans : There is system of reservation of seats for Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in our legislatives in by the Indian constitution. But there is no provision of reservation for other disadvantaged groups. As such there is no reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women. To improve the situation of state Assemblies. In the connection there should be demand for reserving one third seats for women. So,we need an amendment to the constitution. Till this time, several amendment bill have been introduced but yet been not passed such bills.
Q.8. Here are some wishes expressed in a conference to discuss a constitution for a new country. Write against each of these whether FPTP or proportional representation system is more suited to meet each of these wishes.
(a) People should clearly know who is their representative so that they can hold him or her personally accountable.
(b) We have small linguistic minorities who are spread all over the country. We should ensure fair representation to them.
(c) There should be no discrepancy between votes and seats for different parties.
(d) People should be able to elect a good candidate even it they do not like his or her political party.
Ans : (a) FPTP.
(b) Proportional representation.
(c) Proportional representation.
Q.9. A former chief commissioner joined a political party and contested election. There are various views on this issue one view is that a former election commissioner is an independent citizen and has a right to join any political party and to contest election. According to the other view, leaving this possibility open can effect the impartiality of the of the election commission. So former Election commissioner must not be allowed to contest any elections. Which position do you agree with and why?
Ans : According to Article 324 (1) of the Indian constitution, there is a provision for election commission, who will be responsible for conducting the elections of the union parliament, the state legislative assemblies, president and vice president. The election commission is an independent and impartial agency to conduct the free and fair elections in the country. A former election must not be allowed to contest any election because it can affect the impartiality of the election commission.
Q.10. What do you mean by Adult Franchise?
Ans : The constitution provides for a uniform franchise to all the citizens. The right to vote is granted to the citizens of 18 years or above of age without any discrimination on the basis of caste, religion,sex , education, property and place of birth. It also stated that all men and women of 18 years or above age and whose named appear in the electoral lists, and who have not been disqualified under the law from exercising the franchise, can vote in the election to the Lok Sabha and the state Legislatures.
Q.11. What do you mean Joint electorates?
Ans : According to Article 325 of Indian constitution about the joint electorates, there shall be one general electoral roll for every territorial constituency for election to either house of parliament or to the house or either house of the Legislature of a state. All eligible voters without any discrimination form a common joint electorate for electing their representatives.
Q.12. Write about secret Ballot system.
Ans : Secret ballot system is a important method for the voters to cast vote for selection of representative among various candidates. In this system every voter chooses his/her own candidate in Secret. He does not disclose the views about the candidate to whom the favours. One of the importance in the system that no parties or candidates pressurise the voters to cast vote in favour of them.
Q.13. What is meant by the term election manifesto?
Ans : Election manifesto is a document or pamphlet that includes the programmes, policies and aims of a political party. Election manifesto clarifies the internal and external policies of political party concerned. It is declared by the political parties on the eve of the elections.
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.14. Describe the composition of election commission.
Ans : The constitution provides for an election commissioner and such other election commissioner, if any as the president may from time to time determine (Art.324) presently, the election commission consists of a chief election commissioner and two other election commissioner. Chief election commissioner is appointed by the president and he holds office during the pleasure of the president. Generally the chief election commissioner and other commissioner are appointed for a term of six years. No person who has attained the age of 65 years can remain its member.
Q.15. What do you mean by the term” code of conduct in election”?
Ans : One of the event of the elections, the election commission formulated and enforces a code of conduct for parties which clearly defines the nature and scope of the corrupt practice during elections, electoral offences and breaches of official duties known as code of conduct in election.
Long Types Questions & Answers
Q.16. ” Indian democracy is now ready to shift from a crude. First post system to a system of proportional representation”. Do you agree with this statement? Give reason for or against this statement.
Ans : The makers of our constitution adopted the first past the post system in general but proportional representation for the election to the president, vice President, Rajya Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. They felt that in general proportional representation based election may not be suitable for giving a stable government in a parliamentary system. It was noticed that proportional representation system may not produce a clear majority.
So FPTP System generally makes it possible for parliamentary government to function smoothly and efficiently by facilitating the formation of a stable government. The FPTP system encourages votes from different social groups to come together to win an election in a locality. But after that general elections 1989, there were unstable governments upto1998 and after that from 1999 it has been this position it is felt that “Indian democracy” is now ready to shift from a FPTP system to a system of proportional representation .
But it the Indian social context where the oppressed social groups and castes rest everywhere, it is demanded by an ideology that proportional representation would be better. But it is not true and it will not suit our purposes. The FPTP system encourages voters from different social groups to come together to win a election. The proportional representation system would encourage each community to from its own nation wide party. That would be harmful for our spirit of national integration.
Q.17. What are the powers and functions of the election commission.
Ans : The Constitution of India, its Arts 324-328,
enumerates the powers and functions of the election commission.
These can be described as under :
(1) Preparation of the electoral rolls :- The election commission prepared the electoral rolls for the election to the Parliament all state legislature including the local bodies.
(2) Superintendence and direction :- Superintendence, direction and control of all matters pertaining to election of the president, vice-president, Parliament and state legislatures.
(3) Advice :- Rendering advice to the president and Governors on the questions of disqualification incurred by the members of the union or state legislatures.
(4) Appointment of election officers :- Appointment of election officers for inquiring into the disputes arising out of or connected with the election arrangements.
(5) Settlement of disputes :- Settlement of disputes regarding allotment of election symbols to the parties at the time of election.
(6) Determine the code of conduct :- To determine the code of conduct to be observed by the parties and the candidates at the time of elections.
(7) Recognition of political parties :- It is an another function for election commission to accord recognition to political parties ad all India or state parties.
(8) Decides disputes :- Another function of election commission to decides disputes regarding election symbol in the event of split.
(9) Notification of dates and schedules :- the election commission notified the dates and schedules of elections and scrutinizes of the nomination papers.
(10) Procuring staff :- procuring the necessary staff for the conduct of the election from the president and governors of the states is an another function of election commission.
Thus those are the important powers and functions of election commission.
Q.18. What is direct and indirect method election system in India.
Ans :- There are two types of election system to select a candidates by the voters direct and indirect. In the direct type of elections, all the voters participate in the elections of their representatives. When a voter himself takes part in election directly and goes himself to the polling both and casts his votes to a candidate of his own choice it is called direct election. In this method secret method of ballot is used.
In the other hand in indirect method of election, the voters do not elect their representatives to legislative assemblies directly, but elect intermediary electors elect representatives to the legislative assemblies.
Q.19. What is independence of the election commission Indian constitution.
Ans : The Constitution of India has Incorporated several steps for ensuring the independence of the election commission from the possible influence of the Parliament, the president, the union council of minister and the bureaucracy. It has been laid down that the chief election commissioner can be removed from the office only by a system of impeachment. For this purpose, the Parliament has to pass a resolution supported by a majority of total membership and 23rd majority in each house individually and then this resolution is to be presented to the president who alone can then order his removal.
Other election commission can’t be removed from office except on the advice of the election commissioner. Further, the conditions of service of the Chief election commissioner can’t be changed to his disadvantage after his appointment.
Q.20. Explain the different stages of electoral process of India.
Ans : The electoral process in India is operationalised is several stags, which can be explained as under :
(1) Delimitation of constituencies :- the first step in conduction the elections can be described as the delimitation of constituencies which is done by a delimitation commission appointed after every census by the president.
(2) Preparation of electoral rolls :- An important step in the conduct of election is to get prepared constituency wise the electoral rolls which record the names of the eligible voters.
(3) Notification of elections and appointment of returning officers and other staff :- After consulting the control and state governments, the election commission announce the poll calendar, i.e. the dates for filling the nomination papers, scrutiny of nomination papers and withdrawal of names by the candidates.
(4) Withdrawal of nominations :- After scrutiny, the candidates are allowed to voluntarily withdraw their nomination by a fixed date, ad fixed by the election commission.
(5) Scrutinize of nomination papers :- After the last date for the filling of the nominations, all the nomination papers are scrutinized by the returning officers in the presence of the candidates.
(6) Withdrawal of nominations :- After scrutiny, the candidates are allowed to voluntarily withdraw their nomination by a fixed date, as fixed by the election commission.
(7) Election Campaign :- It is an another stage for electoral rolls. Each party issue an election manifesto which states its policies, programmes and promises.
(8) Polling of votes :- In this stage, the voters go the polling boot and cast their vote in favour of his/her candidate.
(9) Counting of votes and declaration of result :- After polling of votes, the election commission declaration of result: After polling of votes, the election commission declared a candidate who gets more valid votes than all other candidates as elected.
(10) Election petition for settlement of electoral disputes :- After the declaration of the result, the election of a winning candidate can challenged either by the defeated candidates or by a voter or a group of voters. For this purpose an election petition can be filed before the high court within a fixed period.
Thus, election system in India is a well structured system.
Q.21. Mention any four weaknesses of the electoral system India.
Ans : (a) Misuse of mass media :- During elections the ruling party uses various means of mass media-Radios, Television and Newspapers etc.- to propagate their policies and programmes.
(b) Low polling percentage :– In India, many voters do not cast their votes. The voting percentage generally is almost 50 to 60 percent. Therefore, the representative bodies are not truly representative.
(c) Delay in the disposal of election petitions :- In India, it takes a long time in the disposal of election petitions and sometimes the very purpose of election petition gets defeated.
(d) Use of caste and religion in election :- In India, a large number of votes are cast on the basis of caste and religion. As a result people get divided on the basis of caste, religion and community which is very harmful for national unity.
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