Class 11 Environment Chapter 5 Environmental Pollution The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 1st Year Environmental Studies Chapter 5 Environmental Pollution Question Answer.
Class 11 Environment Chapter 5 Environmental Pollution
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VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTION & ANSWER MARKS:
1. Who is most responsible for environmental pollution?
2. What happened in the USA in 1962-65?
Ans: The USA experienced in severely dry climate and bitter cold in 1962-65.
3. What happened in UK during 1961-62?
Ans: The UK experienced drought and erratic climate in 1961-62.
4. What did Russia suffer in 1971?
Ans: Russia suffered extremely low temperature in 1971.
5. What natural calamity happened in India in 1978?
Ans: India was badly affected by flood in 1978.
6. When drought badly affected India.
Ans: In 1980, drought badly affected India.
7. When did the industrial revolution take place?
Ans: Towards the end of 18th century, the industrial revolution took place.
8. What is abnormal climate?
Ans: When pollution occurs in the environment abnormal changes occur in the climates also. This is called abnormal climate.
9. Why do floods occur in Assam every year?
Ans: Deforestation and the unplanned construction of embankments are the main causes of floods in Assam.
10. Describe the atmosphere of Guwahati city.
Ans: The atmosphere of Guwahati is also very much polluted by the smoke, ashes, garbages and population. The motor vehicles and population are mostly responsible for environmental pollution in Guwahati.
11. What is the full form of SMP?
Ans: The full form of SMP is Suspended Particulate Matter.
12. When and where did the industrial revolution take place?
Ans: The industrial revolution took place in 18th century in Europe.
13. What is the full form of MIC?
Ans: The full form of MIC is Methyl Isocyanate.
14. Write the name of the most populous city of India.
Ans: Kolkata is the most populous city of India.
15. How do the jet planes also pollute the atmosphere?
Ans: The jet planes release aerosol in the upper layer of the atmosphere and pollute the atmosphere.
16. Which agent is the most responsible for air pollution?
Ans: Motor vehicle is the most responsible for air pollution.
17. When did the government of India enforce air pollution act?
Ans: The government of India enforced the Air Pollution Act in 1981.
18. What are the causes of lung cancer and bronchitis?
Ans: The SPM and sulphur-di-oxide are the causes of lung cancer and bronchitis.
19. Which elements damages our blood circulation system, liver and kidneys?
Ans: Air-born lead damages our blood circulation system, liver and kidneys.
20. What is personal air pollution?
Ans: When air pollution affects the health of an individual person it is called personal air pollution.
21. Which elements create acids rain?
Ans: Sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides create the acid rain.
22. Write the name of the famous forest of Germany destroyed by acid rain.
Ans: Black rest.
23. What is the most sophisticated technology to get rid of impurities in water?
Ans: The effluent treatment plant is the sophisticate technology to get rid of impurities in water.
24. What is the full form of ETP?
Ans: The full form ETP is Effluent Treatment Plant
25. What is the full form of DDT.
Ans: The full form of DDT is Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane.
26. Name the worst elements that disturb the ecosystem.
Ans: The destruction of forests and increasing population are the worst elements that disturb the ecosystem.
27. In which century did the industrial revolution take place?
Ans: Towards the end of 18th century the industrial revolution took place.
SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTION & ANSWER MARKS:
1. Describe the reasons of changes in weather and climate?
Ans: There are many natural and man-made reasons of changes in weather and climate. But men are more responsible than the nature. The burning of fossil fuels, the rapid population growth, destruction of forest etc. are the main factors of environment pollution. These are the main reasons of changes in weather and climate.
2. Describe what happened to the climate of the world during the second half of the last century.
Ans: During the second half of the last century, we found many changes in climate. In 1962-65, the USA had the experience of a severely dry climate and bitter cold, in 250 years. The UK had the experience of the coldest climate in 1961-62. Europe also suffered drought in 1976. Russia suffered the extremely low temperature in 1971.
3. How do the changes in climate affect the people in the developing counties?
Ans: The developing countries are generally located in the monsoon regions. For the climatic changes the monsoon shows the erratic behaviour in these regions. As a result, heavy floods or drought occur. In the developing countries most people depend on agriculture. If the floods or drought occur every year, that means heavy damaged to the crops. The irregularity of monsoon also affects the crops and the life of the people. In this way the climatic changes affect the people in the developing countries.
4. What did happen to the Brahmaputra and Barak valleys in the second half of the last century?
Ans: Since the second half of the last century, there have been heavy floods in the Braghmaputra and Barak valleys of Assam. Severe drought conditions also occurred. So the floods and drought are perennial problem of Assam. For the climatic changes, the south-west monsoons are very irregular in this regions and there is scanty of rain.
5. Discuss the abnormal climatic conditions of the world.
Ans: For the natural and mad-made factors some abnormal behaviour have been observed in nature. In 1962-65, the USA had the experience of a severely dry climate and bitter cold. The UK had experienced the coldest climate in 1961-62. Drought and erratic climate were the main features of Europe in 1976. Russia had experienced the extremely low temperature in 1971. Destruction of forests and tropical rain forest are the causes of abnormal climate.
6. Discuss the main causes of climatic changes.
Ans: For climatic changes both the nature and man are responsible. But man are more responsible than the nature. The rapid growth of population, deforestation, excessive use of natural resources, burning of fossil fuels, increasing industries are the main causes of climatic changer
7. Why do floods occur in Assam so often?
Ans: In Assam the rainfall is decreasing and even then the floods occur every year. Deforestation and unplanned construction of embankments are the main causes behind the rise of river-beds and consequently floods occur frequently.
8. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Tropical region
Ans: Equator divides our earth into northern and southern hemispheres The nearby areas of the equator on both sides are under the Tropical region. For the climatic changes the tropical regions are badly affected.
The countries of the tropical region now face many problems. But the floods and droughts are the major problems for them.
(b) Polar regions
Ans: Our earth has two poles-north pole and south pole. These are called polar regions. The polar regions are called water reservoirs, because the polar regions are always covered with thick ice. At present the scientists are concerned about the global warming. If the global warming increases, the ice of the polar regions will melt, and floods will occur almost all over the world.
(c) The Himalayas
Ans: The Himalayas are the highest mountain range of the world. It is also water, reservoir, because many parts of the Himalayas are covered with thick ice. Many big rivers of India come out from the Himalayas. So if the global warming increases, the Himalayas will supply more water to the river, and floods will occur in many places.
(d) Fossil fuel.
Ans: The remains of organisms embedded in the surface of the earth, contain high carbon and hydrogen. Those elements are used by man as fuel. This kind of fuel is called fossil fuel.
Ans: Aerosol is fine solid or liquid particles in the atmosphere which exert a lot of influence on the other gases including sulphur-di-oxide. It exists in air in the form of smoke, fog and vapour. It is very harmful for our atmosphere.
(f) Minamata disease:
Ans: The water polluted with mercury may causes many a disease. One such disease occurred first in the Bay of Minamata in Japan. So this disease is called Minamata disease.
Ans: Mercury is a poisonous substance. Use of mercury has been increasing rapidly as it is required especially in paper mills and electrical industries. Some other industries also use mercury. Now the production rate of Mercury in the world is about 9,000 tones per year. The water polluted with mercury may cause many diseases in aquatic and other animals.
(h) Hould-hold-waste :
Ans: Cowdung, carcasses of cattle, dogs, cats, goats and other animals, excreta, of various animals, lumps of straw and hay, various types of vegetable wastes, litters etc. are called house-hold wastes. These house hold wastes also pollute the water.
(i) Traffic Control:
Ans: Noise created by automobiles can be reduced by banning blowing of hors and permitting only such vehicles which have good bodies and efficient silencers, Restriction on heavy vehicles to ply on certain routes during the peak hours of traffic will also reduce the adverse effects of noise pollution.
(j) Noise free zones :
Ans: The areas near hospitals and educational institutions should be declared as noise free zones. Frequent movement of vehicles, blowing of horns and use of loudspeakers should be restricted.
(k) Sources of noise :
Ans: Industries, factories, electric looms, generators, stone crushers, trains, motor vehicles, construction of building and bridges, loudly playing radio, TV, stereo are the sources of noise.
(l) Plantation :
Ans: Planting of trees is called plantation. Plants absorb noise. So in cities and towns, there should be green belts. Plantation of trees makes the towns or cities beautiful and makes the climate pleasant.
9. How do the developing countries hamper the ecosystem? Discuss.
Ans: The rate of population growth is higher in developing countries than the developed countries. People pollute the air and destroy the forests for more cultivable lands. The rapid increase of population also hamper the progress of the developing countries and leads to poverty and undue interference on the activities of the ecosystem. In this way the developing countries hamper the ecosystem.
10. Discuss, how the climatic changes, hamper the progress of the developing counties?
Ans: Generally the developing countries are located in the monsoon regions. The monsoons greatly influence the lives of the people. Most of the people depend on agriculture and agriculture depends on monsoon.
But for the climatic changes, the monsoon shows an erratic behaviour in those regions. As a result every year floods or droughts take place in those regions and hamper the crops.
The monsoons come sometimes early, sometime late and sometimes they show uncertain behaviour.
In this way the climatic changes hamper the progress of the developing countries.
11. “Urban areas are most responsible for environmental pollution”. Discuss
Ans: The industries, factories etc. are mostly established in city or towns. The industries, factories etc. burn the fossil fuels and release a large amount of smokes and ashes to our environment. There are plenty of motor vehicles which burn the petrol, diesel etc and produce a plenty of smoke and ashes and pollute the atmosphere. The urban areas generally provide more opportunities for earning livelihood. So the people come to the towns or cities. The people also pollute the air. In some cities or towns many forests are also destroyed for their own projects. For these reasons urban areas are responsible of environmental pollution.
12. What is ‘Green House Effect’? Discuss.
Ans: Industries, factories and motor vehicles burn the fossil fuels and pollute our atmosphere. The polluted air contains carbon-di-oxide, carbon monoxide, methene, lead, aerosol etc. These elements allow the sun rays to fall on earth and on the other hand, traps the outgoing radiation from t the earth. In this way these elements help to increase global warming e This phenomenon is called ‘Green House Effect.
13. What are the air polluting substances released in India?
Ans: Sulphur-di-oxide, carbon-di-oxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulphide, SMP and lead particles are the polluting substances released in e India.
14. What is ‘smog’?
Ans: Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons form a layer at high temperature in our atmosphere, it is called smog. It is a grey or yellowish f brown opaque substance deposited in air.
15. What is air pollution? What are its categories?
Ans: The presence of pollutants in air which is the cause of injury and damage to human beings, animals, plants and other objects is called air pollution.
Air pollution is of three categories. These are-personal, occupational and community air pollution.
16. ‘Nature also pollutes air’ – Explain.
Ans: Air pollution is also caused by nature itself. It may be due to respiration from man and animals, dusts, bacteria, fungi, pollens, spores, volcanic gases etc. So it is said, ‘nature also pollutes air.
17. Describe the extent of air pollution in some major cities of the world.
Ans: The air of some industrial cities are always covered with smog. An aerial view of the cities like London, Tokyo, New York etc. shows that these cities are covered with thick smog. Excessive burns of petrol, diesel, coal etc. produce the harmful gases like carbon-di-oxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur-di-oxide and they pollute the air. The rapid urbanisation, deforestation, land erosion are also the causes of air pollution.
18. Can air pollution be rooted out entirely? How can it be controlled?
Ans: No, the air pollution cannot be rooted out entirely.
The air pollution can be controlled as follows:
(a) We should reduce burning fossil fuels and think for alternative fuels.
(b) We should change our old technology and industrial equipments.
(c) The government should strictly enforce the law of pollution.
(d) We should use purified fuel in our motor vehicles.
(e) Plantation of trees is also a good method to control air pollution.
19. Describe the legal and organisational aspects of controlling air pollution.
Ans: The government of India has enacted a law in 1981 to control and prevent the air pollution. This act is implemented by central pollution control board and state pollution control boards. Thus government organisations are now handling the law of pollution to control air pollution.
20. What is the best way to minimise air pollution?
Ans: The best way to minimise air pollution is to replace the old s technology and the equipments of industries, factories, motor vehicle s etc. and think for new anti-pollution devices.
21. Discuss the major causes of air pollution.
Ans: The major causes of air pollution are:
(a) We burn excessive fossil fuels in industries, factories and motor vehicles and produce a huge amount of harmful gases and smoke and pollute the air. M
(b) The rapid growth of population pollute the air.
(c) The rapid urbanisation, deforestation, land erosion etc, also pollute the air.
22. What are the sources of water pollution?
Ans: There are many sources which are responsible for water pollution Among them eroded soils, decomposed body of plants and animals, fallen leaves, organic materials, chemical fertilizers, industrial wastes, municipal and house-hold wastes are the main sources of water pollution.
23. How does mercury pollute water?
Ans: Some industries use mercury compounds. Mercury has been increasing through paper mills and electrical industries. When this poisonous compound mixes with water, it causes many diseases in our body. In this way the mercury pollute water.
24. How do ships carried crude oil pollute the sea water?
Ans: When crude oil is carried by ships across seas and oceans, some crude oil spills to the seas owing to leakage and other reasons. This spilt crude oil spreads over wide area forming a scum. Crude oil neither dissolves in water nor evaporates. It remains in water for a very time and pollute the sea water which is very harmful for marine lives.
25. How did mercury compound cause Minamata disease?
Ans: The industries dumped mercury compound on the shore of the Minamata Bay of Japan. This poisonous compound pollutes the water. Fish were affected by the polluted water and the inhabitants of Minamata Bay consumed those fishes as food and this disease occurred there. In this way the mercuric compound caused Minamata disease.
26. Describe how seas and oceans are polluted?
Ans: The polluted water of towns, cities and agricultural fields flows through the rivers and their tributaries to sens and pollute the sea water.
The crude oil spreads in seas and oceans through the leakage of huge til tankers carrying oil. This crude oil is neither dissolved in water nor evaporated. It remains in water for a long time and pollutes the water and affects the marine lives.
27. Explain how the water drawn from wells may be harmful
Ans: The rivers and their tributaries carry the poisonous substances to the sea. These substances may go down the earth’s crust and pollute the underground water, which we use for our drinking. So the water drawn from wells may also be harmful for our health.
28. How are the aquatic lives affected by pollution?
Ans: The nutrients in the lakes, river, seas etc. help algne and weeds to grow under water luxuriantly. They consume large amount of oxygen and exhaust the stock of oxygen and create a dearth of oxygen in sea water which greatly hamper the aquatic lives. In this way the aquatic lives are affected by pollution.
29. What is environment?
Ans: Environment means surrounding, we are surrounded by abiotic and biotic factors of environment. The various types of radiation, air, water, rocks etc, form the abiotic environment. Living organisms that interact among themselves form the biotic environment.
30. What does environment sciences provide us with?
Ans: Environment science provides us with an approach towards Understanding the environment of our planet. It also tells us about the impact of life on it and vice-versa. It also makes us to enquire for the solutions to environmental problems that confront mankind now.
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