Many young men and women from different parts of India jumped into the nationwide freedom movement against the British. In the interest of the country, many young peoples actively participated in this freedom movement and created an example of patriotism. Bipin Chandra Pal was one of the most powerful fighters of the freedom struggle started against the British and one of the most important people who played a very important role in India’s freedom struggle.
Biography of Bipin Chandra Pal
|Name||Bipin Chandra Pal|
|Date of Birth||November 7, 1858|
|Place of Birth||Undivided India (Poil village in Habiganj district of present-day Bangladesh)|
|Father’s Name||Ramchandra Pal|
|Mother’s Name||Narayani Devi|
|Education||1/ Presidency College, Calcutta|
2/ Church Missionary Society
3/ Manchester College, Oxford
|Death||November 20, 1932|
Early Life of Bipin Chandra Pal
At a time when the sepoy mutiny was formed for the first time in the whole of India against the British, Bipin Chandra Pal was born on November 7, 1858, in the village of Poil in the Habiganj Sylhet District, Bengal Presidency of undivided India and present-day Bangladesh. Bipin Chandra Pal’s father’s name is Ramchandra Pal and mother’s name is Narayani Devi. By profession Bipin Chandra Pal’s father Ramchandra Pal was a Persian scholar and a zamindar. His mother, on the other hand, was generous and possessed of human qualities. Because of which Pal from a very young age started witnessing all fields from the point of view of equality and humanity.
Also Read: Biography of Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bipin Chandra Pal passed the entrance examination in the third division in 1874. After passing the entrance examination, he studied for a year at Presidency college in Calcutta and subsequently at the Church Missionary Society College in Calcutta. He also studied comparative theology for a year at Manchester College, Oxford in English but could not finish the course. Pal started his professional career as headmaster after completing his education. Later, he worked as a librarian in the library. While working as a librarian, Pal was attracted to the active political field with the company of Surendranath Banerjee, Shivnath Shastri, B.K. Goswami. It was during this time that Bipin Chandra Pal was also inspired by the thoughts of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Arvind Ghosh. Even before he started his family life, Pal became closely involved in the political arena. It is to be noted that Pal was influenced by the thinking and philosophy of the liberal social reformer and philosopher Shivnath Shastri of that time. For which, with the ideology of Shivnath Sastri, he devoted himself completely to building a political movement against imperialism for the emancipation of his country and his people.
It is important to note that Indian political leaders established a national institution in Sylhet with the aim of building a strong struggle against the British with the aim of instilling political consciousness and nationalism among the masses. But a company set up in Srihat town of Sylhet was shut down in 1879 due to lack of management. Due to which this institute was converted into Srihat National School in 1880 under the leadership of Bipin Chandra Pal, and Rajendra Chaudhary.
Political Career and Works done by Bipin Chandra Pal
After the birth of the All-India Political Party National Congress through the Bombay Conference in 1855, “a new chapter in the history of the Indian National Movement began.” Bipin Chandra Pal joined the Congress party in 1886. Pal became a major leader of the Indian National Congress. At the Madras session of Indian National Congress held in 1887, Pal made a strong plea for repeal of the Arms Act which was discriminatory in nature. After joining the Congress, he participated in the Swadeshi Movement and Non-Cooperation Movement, which started under the leadership of the Congress. Apart from this, Bipin Chandra Pal played a strong role against the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosh urged everyone to join the struggle inspired by the great ideal of self-sacrifice, while playing an important role in inculcating confidence and self-reliance among the people. It is to be noted that in a short span of time during this period Pal became known as the leader of all Indian levels. Pal is also known as the “Father of Revolutionary Thoughts” in India of India. His gripping style of storytelling appealed to the masses from all walks of life. For which Bipin Chandra Paul travelled to different parts of India and participated in various meeting committees and played a special role in making the public aware in general.
After the formation of close relations with Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the three of them were instrumental in awakening the sleeping caste together. “Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal are considered to be the three pillars of India’s political arena.” Bipin Chandra Pal, along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, extended support to revolutionary activities such as boycotting British goods and shops, burning Western clothes, sponsoring strikes and lockouts in British factories. It is important to note that Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal became popular at that time as Lal-Pal-Bal. It is to be noted that ultra-nationalism was led by Aurobindo Ghosh. At that time, they had published a magazine called ‘Vande Mataram’ and Pal was responsible for the editing of the magazine. Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, and Pal were recognised as the chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals of Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycott and national education. Aurobindo Ghosh, who was closely watched, was arrested by the British government in a sedition case. Interestingly, Pal had also been sentenced to six months in jail for refusing to provide evidence against Ghosh in the sedition case.
Interestingly, in 1898, Pal travelled to study comparative theology at the new Manchester College under Oxford College, England. He returned to India from England in 1901 and took up the task of editing an English journal called ‘New India.’ He wrote several articles warning India of the changes happening in China and other geopolitical situations. In one of his writings, describing where the future danger for India would come from, Pal wrote under the title “Our Real Danger”.
Apart from this, he actively participated in India’s freedom struggle. It is to be noted that Pal played a key role in popularizing the concept of “Swaraj” among Indians.
Importantly, Pal was a strong critic of Mahatma Gandhi and his policy of non-violence. Pal was one of the senior Congress leaders opposing Gandhi’s proposal of non-cooperation in the 1920s.
Apart from being a freedom fighter, Pal was also a visionary of the women’s liberation struggle. He was in favour of widow marriage from a very young age because he joined the Brahmin community as a student.
Bipin Chandra Pal’s role in preventing child marriage and polygamy, creating widespread awareness in Indian society about the introduction of women’s education was remarkable. It is to be noted that Pal fought against superstition till his death. He wholeheartedly supported the widow marriage started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Importantly, Bipin Chandra Pal, who was in favour of women’s freedom, set an example in the society by marrying a widow himself. It is to be noted that he married a widow after the death of his first wife.
Pal’s initiatives and efforts were not limited to the introduction of widow marriage. Apart from writing against the bias of polygamy, he formed public opinion by addressing meetings and committees. He helped a lot in the spread of women’s education. Bipin Chandra Pal, a staunch supporter of gender equality, was also against the caste system.
Bipin Chandra Pal, popularly known as a brilliant orator and writer, also served as a journalist. Two journals, ‘The Democrat’ and ‘The Independent’, were edited by Bipin Chandra Pal. Apart from this, he also started working in newspaper magazines called Paridarsak’, ‘Vande Mataram’, ‘New India’, ‘Swaraj’. Some of the notable books written by Bipin Chandra Pal are ‘ Indian Nationalism’, ‘Swaraj and the Present Situation’, ‘Nationality and Empire’, ‘The Basis of Social Reform’, ‘The New Spirit and Studies in Hinduism’, and ‘The Soul of India’.
Pal dreamt of an independent-beautiful-free society. It is for this reason that he has presented a unique ideal in the political struggle for longevity with patience, courage and determination, which is unforgettable. Towards the end of his life, he devoted himself to the creation of literature, even though he parted off from political life. He died on May 20, 1932. He was 73 years old at the time of his death.
1. When and where was Bipin Chandra Pal born?
Ans: Bipin Chandra Pal was born on November 7, 1858, in the village of Poil in the district of Habiganj in undivided India and present-day Bangladesh.
2. What are the names of Bipin Chandra Pal’s father and mother?
Ans: Bipin Chandra Pal’s father’s name is Ramchandra Pal and mother’s name is Narayani Devi.
3. What steps did Bipin Chandra Pal took to establish gender equality in the society?
Ans: Bipin Chandra Pal, a staunch supporter of gender equality, was instrumental in creating widespread awareness in Indian society about preventing child marriage and polygamy, introducing women’s education. He himself set an example in the society by marrying a widow. He married a widow after the death of his first wife.
5. Name some of the books written by Bipin Chandra Pal.
Ans: Some of the notable books written by Bipin Chandra Pal are ‘ Indian Nationalism’, ‘Swaraj and the Present Situation’, ‘Nationality and Empire’, ‘The Basis of Social Reform’, ‘The New Spirit and Studies in Hinduism’, and ‘The Soul of India’.
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