NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 29 Human Settlement

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 29 Human Settlement, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 29 Human Settlement and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 29 Human Settlement Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Geography Notes Paper 316.

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 29 Human Settlement

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 29 Human Settlement, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Geography Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Human Settlement

Chapter: 29




Q.1. Answer the following questions in not more than one sentence:

(i) What is a settlement?

Ans. Any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city is called settlement.

(ii) What are the two major basis on which we differentiate between rural and urban settlements?

Ans. Two major basis are:

(i) Function and

(ii) Population.

(iii) Name the four broad categories on which rural settlements in India are grouped.

Ans. (i) Compact.

(ii) Semi-compact.

(iii) Hamlet.

(iv) Dispersed.

(iv) Which type of settlement has maximum area coverage in India.

Ans. Compact settlement.

(v) Describe hamleted settlement.

Ans. Hamleted settlement is fragmented into several small units, where Central or main settlement is either absent or has every less influence on the other  units.

(vi) Where do we find dispersed settlements? Give two examples.

Ans. (a) Tribal areas of Central part of India.

(b) Hills of North Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.


Q.1. Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What are three factors that influence the type of rural settlements in India?

Ans. These factors are:

(a) Physical.

(b) Ethnic and cultural.

(c) Historical  or defence.

(ii) Name any three aspects of ethnic and cultural sectors which influence rural settlement.

Ans. (a) Caste.

(b) Community.

(c) Ethnic.

(d) Religion.

(iii) Which is the most common and oldest material used for building walls in India?

Ans. Mud.

(iv) Where do we found timer aur oats as building material for wall in India?

Ans. (a) Forest areas.

(b) Hilly parts of the country Where woods are available in plenty.

(v) Which parts of our country stone slabs or flakes are used as building material for roof?

Ans. (a) Mountainous.

(b) hilly and plateau region.


Answer The Following Question Briefly:

(i) What is an urban agglomeration?

Ans. Agglomeration can be any one of the three combinations:

(a) A town and its adjoining urban outgrowths.

(b) Two aur mor continuous towns with or without their outgrowths.

(c) A city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming contiguous Stretch.

(ii) What are two types of town according to census of India?

Ans. (a) Statutory town.

(b) Census town.

(iii) Define mega cities.

Ans. Mega cities are the cities having more than 5 million population.

(iv) According to 1991 census, which functional city was maximum in number?

Ans. According to 1991 census, City work primary activity was maximum in number (1756).

(v) Name any two educational cities of India.

Ans. (a) Roorkee.

(b) Pilani.

(c) Manipal.

(d) Aligarh.

(e) Varanasi.


Q.1. What is a settlement? Describe various types of rural settlements in India.

Ans. Any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city is called settlement. The various types of rural settlements are as under:

1. Compact settlements: These settlements have closely built area. Maximum settlements of our country comes under this category. These settlements are distributed over the entire northern Indo-Ganga plains, Orissa coast, Chhattisgarh, Assam in Tripura.

2. Semi-compact settlements: As the name suggested the dwelling aur houses are not well knitted. Such settlements are characterised by a small compact nucleus around which hamlets are dispersed. It covers more area than the compact settlements. These settlements are found both in plains and classes depending upon the environmental conditions prevailing in that area.

3. Hamleted settlements: These types of settlements are fragmented into several small units. The main settlement does not have much influence on the other units. These are found in West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and coastal plains.

4. Dispersed settlements: This is also known as isolated settlements. These settlements are characterised by units of small size which may consist of a single house to a small group of houses. It varies from two or seven huts. These are found in tribal areas of Central part of India covering Chota Nagpur Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan etc.

Q.2. Explain various patterns of compact settlements of india with example.

Ans. The various patterns of compact settlements are as under:

1. Linear pattern: It is commonly found along main roads railways, streams etc. It may have single row of houses arranged alone the main artery. For example rural settlements found along the sea coast, river valley, mountain ranges etc.

2. Rectangular pattern: This is a very common type which develops around the rectangular shape of agricultural fields as it is common to find a system of land measurement based on square units. Village parts and cart tracks also confirm to the rectangular field pattern and run through the village in north-south and east-west directions. Does settlements of coastal Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh and either side of Aravali hills etc. are the examples of this pattern.

3. Square Pattern: This is basically a variant of rectangular type. Such a pattern is associated with villages line at the crossing of cart or roads and also related to features restricting the extension of the village outside a square space. These features may include and old boundary wall, thick orchards, a road or a pond.

4. Circular Pattern: These patterns are found in upper Doab  and Trans-Yamuna districts, Malwa region, Punjab and Gujarat. The outer walls of dwelling Ed join each other and present a continuous front so that when viewed from outside, The villages look like a walled and fortified enclosure pierced  by a few openings.

5. Radial Pattern: In this type, a number of streets Converse on one centre which may be a source of water, a temple or a mosque. This the streets seem to be radiating from a common centre. Examples are settlements near Guru Shikhar, Mount Abu etc.

Q.3. Describe various factors influencing settlement types in India.

Ans. There are three factors influencing the types of settlements.

1. Physical Factors: These include relief, altitude, soil capability, drainage, ground water etc. These factors influence the type of spacing of dwelling. For instance, in dry regions of Rajasthan, houses are situated along a pond or well as the water is crucial factor.

2. Ethnic and Cultural Factors: These include aspects like caste, community, ethnicity and religion. In India it is commonly found that the main land owning cast resides at the centre of the village in the other service providing caste on the periphery. This  leads tu social segregation and fragmentation of a settlement into several units.
3. Historical or defence Factor: Mostly border areas of north-western plains were conquered or attacked frequently by outsiders, apart from attack from outsiders there had been continuous fight between princely states and kingdoms within the country therefore, security concerns favoured the evolution of nucleated settlements.

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