Class 12 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 5 Map Reading and Geographical Data Representation

Class 12 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 5 Map Reading and Geographical Data Representation, Class 12 Question Answer to each chapter is provided in the list of AHSEC so that you can easily browse through different chapters and select needs one. Class 12 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 5 Map Reading and Geographical Data Representation Question Answer can be of great value to excel in the examination.

Class 12 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 5 Map Reading and Geographical Data Representation Notes covers all the exercise questions in HS 2nd Year Swadesh Adhyayan Textbooks Solutions. The Assam Board Class 12 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 5 Map Reading and Geographical Data Representation provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every chapter and score well in the board exams.

Map Reading and Geographical Data Representation

Chapter – 5

SWADESH ADHYAYAN

1.

(i)  Map is the main tool of Geography.

(ii) A map can be drawn with the help of a  computer / scale.

(iii) Eratosthenes calculated the size of the Earth for the first time.

(iv) In 1154 during the Islamic Golden era the famous cartographer Al Idrisi prepared the best map.

(v) Latitude and Longitude intersects to form a grid and points called coordinates.

(vi) Traverse method is a simple system of surveying a field.

2.

1. What is a scale? How many types are there?

Ans. A scale is a set of levels or numbers which are used in a particular system of measuring things or are used when comparing things. In Geography, map scale denotes the relationships which the distance between any two points on the map bears to the corresponding distance on the grounds.

There are three types of map scale – 

(i) Graphical or Linear scale.

(ii) Statement scale. and

(iii) Representative fraction or RF.

2. Convert the statement into RF. 2 miles = 63360m.

Ans. We know that 1 mile = 63360 in

Therefore 2 miles = 2x 63360 = 126720

Hence, RF = 1:126720

3. How can you differentiate Graphical scale and Diagonal scale?

Ans. Some points to differentiate Graphical Scale and Diagonal scale are – 

      Graphical or Linear Scale                Diagonal Scale
1. It is a ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distance on the map to actual ground distance.1. It is an engineering measuring instrument which is composed of a set of parallel straight lines which are oblique crossed by another set of straight lines.
2. It shows primary and secondary divisions only. 2. Here divisions can be subdivided to achieve greater accuracy.
3. It is used to convert distance on the map to actual distance on the ground. 3. It is used to measure small fractions of the unit of measurement.

4. What is Remote Sensing?

Ans. Remote Sensing is a technology used for geographical study. It is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomena without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on site observation of the Earth. For example: images of the Earth collected by special cameras in satellite or high flying aircraft.

5. How many element are there in a Map?

Ans. There are a few elements entangled with Maps such as- 

 1. Title of a map.  

2. Location. 

3. Configuration and direction of a Map.

4. Shape and size.      

5. Time of a map.     

6. Conventional legend.

7. Scale.                    

8. Area. and                      

9. Distances.

6. Write about different types of a Map.

 Ans – There are mainly five different types of a Map. They are – 

1. General Reference Map where town, cities, routes, lakes and rivers are named

2. Topographical Map showing land elevation and features.

3. Thematic Map to highlight information on special topics.

4. Navigational Charts including features in and around the navigational routes of an area or the world

5. Cadastral Map and Plans of individual properties offering details like boundary and all.

7. What is surveying?

Ans. Surveying is the systematic process of making measurements on the field, from which maps are drawn. It is a technique profession, art and science. Surveying also provides advice and data for geographical information system that record land features.

3. 

1. What is a Projection? How many types do you find in your text book?

Ans. A projection in considered as a network of parallels of latitudes and Longitudes.

Three types – 

1. Cylindrical Projection,

2. Conical Projection. and

3. Zenithal Projection.

2. Name the activities that can be acquired from ‘GIS’ software?

Ans. ‘GIS’ application software are tools that allow users to create interactive queries, analyse spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the result of all these operation.

3. Write a short note on ‘Remote Sensing’. 

Ans. Remote Sensing is a technology used for geographical study. It is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomena without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on site observation of the Earth. For example: images of the Earth collected by special cameras in satellite or high flying aircraft.

The term ‘remote sensing’ generally refers to the use of satellite or aircraft based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth in order to obtain information about it. It helps researcher’s sense things about the Earth. The image of large areas on the Earth’s surface captured by the camera of high flying objects allows us to see much more than we can standing on the ground and can be used to make images of temperature changes in the oceans. 

4.

1. Write a note on the history of ‘Map’. 

Ans. Through the ages, Maps have taken many different forms. The earliest mops were probably sketches made in the ground that showed the surrounding area. One of the world’s oldest Map was found on a stone tablet in Spain which dates back nearly 14,000 years. Claudius Ptolemae or Ptolemy, an astronomer, mathematician and geographer in the second century brought map making to a level of precision in the second century.

During the middle Ages cartographers, drew maps reflecting their religious belief, which were generally simple and sometimes fancy types. The city of Jerusalem holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims was sometimes placed in the Centre. During the Dark ages Arab scholars kept scientific cartography alive. They preserved the works of Ptolemy and translated them in Arabic. They produced the first reliable globe of the western world.

During the Islamic Golden Age, Arabian Cartographers used complicated mathematical and astronomical formulae to help them determine different Map Projection. In 1154, the scientist and cartographer ‘All Idrisi’ made a map of the world that was better then the world maps produced by Europeans.

In the 19th century, cartographer became more advanced with the development of a printing process called ‘lithography’ which allowed to make many accurate copies of maps with lеѕѕ labour and expenses.

In the present days, the relationship between people and maps has changed drastically. Instead of using paper sheet maps, people navigate using GPS and digital maps that represents the Earth in three dimensions. Almost the entire surface of the Earth has been mapped with accuracy and the information is available instantly to anyone with an internet connection.

2. What is a ‘chain surveying’ and what kind of equipment are needed?

Ans. Chain surveying is a simple method of surveying a field. In this survey only measurements are taken in the field and the rest work are done in the office.

Basically, ‘Engineers chain’ and ‘Gunter chain’ are most commonly used. Arrows are used to count the number of chains in chaining. But generally measuring tapes are commonly used.

3. Write a note on Cylindrical Projection?

Ans – Cylindrical projection are a type of projection used to draw maps of our earth. It can be imagined in its simplest form as a cylinder that has been wrapped around a globe at the equator. The points on the spherical grid are transformed to the cylinder which is then unfolded into a flat plane – Here equator remains in the middle and the poles at the top and bottom. Latitudes and longitudes appear as straight lines that intersect each other at right angles in a grid pattern. The longitudes or meridians are equally spaced and latitudes or parallel spaced progressively furtherer apart moving away from the equator. Distortion of shape and scale in a whole cylindrical projection’s is minimum in equatorial regions and maximum at the poles.

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