Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam

Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam and select need one.

Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Questions for 4 mark each

1) What is the importance of ‘vocational efficiency’ as an objective of secondary education in democratic country ?

Ans:- The open university system augments opportunities for higher education, ensures access, is cost effective and promotes a flexible and innovative system of education.The Indira Gandhi National Open University has been established with these objectives and came into existence in September, 1985. The University has been assigned the responsibility to coordinate the distance learning system in the country and determine its standards.

2) What are the suggestions made by Kothari Commission to relate productivity and education ?

Ans:- The Kothari commission suggested Education and Productivity as one of the national objectives of Education.If education is related to productivity an expansion of education will lead to increases in national income. Study of science has to be made an integral part of education at school and university stages. At the same time ‘work experience has to be introduced as an important aspect of education and may be oriented towards technology and industrialization and to the application of science and production processes including agriculture. Education particularly at the secondary stage, needs vocationalization.

3) What are the impacts of secondary education commission on secondary education system Assam ?

Ans:- In 1962 secondary education board of Assam was established as a result of the recommendations of Mudaliar Commission 1952-53. Since then the controlling power of secondary education came under the Secondary Education Board of Assam. The office of the board is located in Guwahati. During this time 67 high schools were upgraded to higher secondary schools on the basis of recommendation of Mudaliar Commission. Secondary Board of Education Assam controls two examinations from the time of establishment. First one is high school leaning Certificate Examination and second one is Higher Secondary Examination which at present is controlled by Assam Higher Secondary Education Council.

According to the recommendations of Mudaliar Commission Government of Assam decided to change some high schools into multipurpose schools.

4) Write four provisions of Assam Secondary education Act, 1961.

Ans:- Four provisions of Assam Secondary Education Act 1961 are :-

i) It extends to the whole of Assam.

ii) The university or any board will have no controlling authority over the secondary schools recognised by the Government.

iii) By a special notice government will constitute ‘Board of Secondary Education’ for the control, management and development of secondary education.

iv) The secondary of the board will be appointed by the government.

5) Discuss about the administrative problems of secondary education in Assam.

Ans:- Some important problems of secondary education in Assam are as follows :-

i) Lack of mass appeal :- Secondary education does not have mass appeal. We have accorded priority to primary education as well as higher education. But secondary education has not received due attention.

ii) Lack of enough resources or finance :- Finance is the greatest hurdle in the field of secondary education in Assam. The financial allocation to secondary education is not sufficient. So, it is a challenged to our educational planners because they will have to work under constants of growing numbers and limited resources made available for it. So it’s quality remains poor.

iii) Unplanned expansion :- Unplanned expansion is another important problem of secondary education in Assam. Now primary education lost its job value and social demand of secondary education is increases. The government and private agencies tried to meet the social demand for secondary education by opening more and more schools. Many of these schools were allowed to function at substandard levels which led to dilution of standard.

iv) Inappropriate curriculum :- The secondary school curriculum is not appropriate to fulfil the needs of the students as well as of the society. Curriculum of secondary education is not related to the real and practical life of students. They follow the curriculum mechanically without interest.

v) Defective teaching methods :- In no secondary schools we will find dynamic methods being followed. The average teacher suffers from lack of professional preparation. The existing educational system is rigid and does not encourage initiatives, creativity and experimentation.

vi) Defective text book :- The quality of text books, teachers guides and teaching materials is not satisfactory.

vii) Improper evaluation system :- The evaluation system of secondary education is not free from evil. It is basically dominated by external examination.

viii) Lack of capable teacher :- The quality of teaching stuff in schools is not satisfactory. In many of the privately managed schools the situation is dangerous.

Write short notes on ( preferably eight sentences for each)

a) Higher Secondary Education Council.

Ans:- On the basis of the recommendations of Kothari commission Government of Assam constituted Assam Higher Secondary Education Council in 1984. As a result of this all the responsibilities of higher secondary education ( management, control and administration) transferred from secondary Education Board of Assam to Assam Higher Secondary Education Council. With these councils have the power of preparation and publication of text books curriculum construction and management of examinations. New education policy formulated in the year 1986. On the basis of this policy in each districts of Assam was established one Navodaya Vidyalaya to develop the secondary education among the meritorious children of rural level.

b) 10+2+3 system.

Ans:- The Education Commission of 1964-66 is the first Education Commission dealing with all aspects of education in the country. The Education Commission has practically reject the 11 year higher secondary stage. The commission has reverted to the old pattern of 10 years schooling followed by a two year intermediate course which will be known as Higher Secondary School. Technical schools will also be established in different areas either separately or as multipurpose schools. According to this commission, a large number of schools were established to meet the need of handicapped children. The Kothari Commission’s recommendations were some what better in this connection.

Like all the other reports, the report is sensible in parts but high sounding and unrealistic. For instance, it was not the business of the commission to recommended on the language of administration and the language of interstate communication. Education in moral and spiritual values has been rightly emphasised by the commission but the study of different religions as a means for that may be objected to by many. People expressed high hopes when the report of the Education Commission was first published in 1966. Already, 27 – years have passed and nothing has been practically done to achieve the targets as recommended by the commission. The commission did not give any useful suggestions on the source of finance, on which the implementation of the recommendations entirely depends.

Taking all things into considerations, we may say that the report of the Education Commission is a sincere attempt to improve the existing system of education in all aspects and in all stages. If it can be implemented, will remove some of the glaring defects of our educational system.

c) Vocationalization of secondary education.

Ans:- New education policy emphasised the vocationalization of education. As far as possible, education should be given in a national environment. The child must acquire some skill in some area of his interests. This is necessary for a happy life in future. With this end in view this new education policy has advocated the inclusion of scientific and technical subjects in the curriculum. It has been specifically stated in the policy that in the tenth class not more than 50 percent students should opt for literacy subjects and the rest should be encouraged to study vocational courses of various types according to their interests. This type of vocationalization of education will minimise the unemployment problem, because then the education person will not depend on some service alone and may utlizie his acquired skill for earning his bread.

d) Kothari commission and secondary education in Assam.

Ans:- On the basis of the recommendations of Kothari Commission Government of Assam constituted Assam Higher Secondary Education Council in 1984. As a result of this all the responsibilities of higher secondary education transferred from secondary Education Board of Assam to Assam Higher Secondary Education Council. With these councils have the power of preparation and publication of text books, curriculum construction and management of examinations. This commission also laid stress on vocationalization of secondary education. As a result various courses were introduced in the secondary stage.

7) Suggest four measures to overcome the problems of secondary education in Assam.

Ans:- i) Provision of educational and vocational guidance.

ii) Improved method of teaching.

iii) Improvement of text books.

iv) Improvement in buildings and equipment.

8) Discuss about the appointment of Kothari Commission.

Ans:- Kothari commission was appointed with the following terms of reference.

i) To evolve a national system of education keeping in view the values and traditions of the country.

ii) Qualitative improvement in education at all levels.

iii) Making education as the key to national prosperity welfare.

iv) Survey of education as a whole.

9) Trace the circumstances that necessitated the appointment of Mudaliar Commission.

Ans:- The progress and expansion of secondary education in the country during the post Independence period makes an intereting study. It is generally agreed that the pace of expansion of education at the secondary level, at the drawn of independence was quite satisfactory. But the overall qualitative improvement gave an factory picture. This system carried certain inherent defects. The need for an urgent reform in secondary education was indirectly pointed out by Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru in his inagural address to the members of the C. A. B. E at the first meeting of the board after independence. It was the circumstances that neccssited the appointment of Mudaliar commission.

10) “Our Secondary education remains the weakest link in our educational machinery” – How did Mudaliar Commission subscribe to this view ?

Ans:- i) The Mudaliar commission, popularly known as secondary education commission, recorded the following major defcts for the subscribe the view that – “Our education remains the weakest link in our educational machinery”.

ii) Secondary education is isolated from the real life.

iii) It fails to create self confidence to the students.

iv) Present secondary education is narrow and one sided.

v) Because of over crowed classes the standard of secondary education is falling day by day.

vi) Teaching method of secondary level is also defective.

vii) Examination system of secondary stage is also defective.

viii) The present system of secondary education has created disappointment among the teachers and is on the fall.

11) Discuss the proposals of National Policy of Education, 1986 Concerning Vocationalization of secondary education.

Ans:- The proposals on national policy of education 1986 concerning vocationalization of secondary education are as follows –

i) Vocational programmes for +2 students will be introduced on Experimental basis on a limited scale in different states by state department of vocational education.

ii) Programmes at +2 level will be formulated by SCERT/SNES in the light of guidelines laid down by NCERT.

iii) To provide more opportunities to students for 10+ vocational courses in engineering and technology, 100 more vocational institutes shall be established.

iv) JCVE will provided in phased manner, 70% of the higher secondary vocational stream graduates stipend to undergo paid apprentices in appropriate industries.

v) Advanced Diploma Programmes, and Degree programmes, and degree programmes will be introduced in selected polytecics affiliated colleges and universities as well as in special institutes set up for propose.

vi) State Department of vocational education and SCVES will necessary schemes for the purpose.

vii) State directors of vocational education will set up career guidance cells at District level.

viii) NCERT/CIVE, SCERTs, RCEs, CDE, TTTLs and other institutes will develop bridge/transfer courses in accordance with the guidelines laid down by JVEC, suitable schemes for course offering shall be developed by SCVES.

12) What are the suggestions forwarded by National Policy on Education, 1986 to equalise educational opportunities ?

Ans:- The National Policy on Education 1986, proposes to lay special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of those who have been deprived of equality so far.The following aspects of education have been specially considered :-

i) Education for Women’s Equality :- It has been laid down to use education as an agent of basis change in the status of women.

ii) The Education of Scheduled Castes :- The central focus in the educational development of the scheduled castes in their equalisation with the non – S. C. population at all stages and levels of education. 

iii) Minorities :- Greater attention will be paid to the education of the educationally deprived or backward groups. This is necessary to maintain equality and justice.

iv) The Handicapped :- The new policy propose to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the general community as equal partners.

v) Adult Education :- The new policy has suggested a vast programme of adult and continuing education, particularly in the age – group 15-35 years through various ways and channels.

13) Describe the measures suggested by Kothari Commission to cultivate social, moral and spiritual values.Education must cultivate social, moral and spiritual values among the students. For this purposes the commission recommended that well-chosen information about each of the major religious should be imparted to the students through a well – organised syllabus.However, it should be always kept in mind that needs of the society and the nation are ever – changing and education should be alert to keep pace with these changes.

14) Discuss about the objectives of Navodaya Vidyalaya.

Ans:- The objectives of Navodaya Vidyalaya are given below :-

i) To serve the objective of excellence, coupled with equity and social justice.

ii) To promote national integration by providing opportunities to talented children, largely rural, from different parts of the country to live and learn together.

iii) To develop their full potential.

iv) To become catalysts of a nation wide programme of school improvement.

v) To school will be residential and free of charge.

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