Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues

Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters HS 2nd Year Economics Notes, AHSEC Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues, Class 12 Economics Question Answer In English Notes and select needs one.

Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues

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Also, you can read the NCERT book Notes Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of AHSEC All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here in Class 12 Economics Chapter 13 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues.

Employment: Growth, Informalisation and other Issues

Chapter: 13



1. Who is a worker?

Ans : He who is engaged in economic activity is a worker.

2. Define worker-population ratio.

Ans : Worker population Ratio img20220401_12213959.jpg

3. Are the following worker – a beggar, a theif, a smuggler, a gambler? Why?

Ans : They are not workers because they are not engaged in any type of economic activities.

4. Find out the odd man out (i) owner of a saloon, (ii) a cobbler, (iii) a cashier in Mother Dairy, (iv) A tuition Master, (v) Transport operator, (vi) Construction worker

Ans : A Tuition Master

5. The newly emerging jobs are found mostly sector.

Ans : Service.

6. An establishment with four hired workers is known as sector establishment.

Ans : Informal.

7. Compare to urban women, more rural women are found working. Why?

Ans : Because rural women are more powerful and they have the tendency to work from the beginning.

8. Meena is a house wife. Besides taking care of household clothes, she works in the cloth shop which is owned and operated by her husband. Can she he considered as a workers?

Ans : Yes, because she is engaged in an economic activity.

9. Find out the odd man out (i) Rickshaw-puller who works under a rickshaw owner (ii) Mason (iii) Mechanic shop worker (iv) Shoe Shine boy.

Ans : (i) Rickshaw-puller who works under a rickshaw owner.

10. What do you mean by economic activities?

Ans : The activities that contribute to the gross national product are called economic activities.

11. How is worker population ratio is calculated?

Ans : Worker population Ratio img20220401_12213959.jpg

12. How is the member of workers found out?

Ans : Number of workers = Population/100  x Workers Population Ratio.

13. What i the main cause of difference in rural and urban workers ratio?

Ans : People have limited resources to get income and employment in rural areas.

14. W hat is meant by self employ?

Ans : Workers who own and operate enterprises and earn their livelihood are called self employment.

15. What do you mean by formal sector establishments?

Ans : All public sector and private sector establishments which employ 10 hired workers or more are called formal sector established.

16. How will you say whether a worker is working in the informal sector?

Ans : If he is not a hired labour.

17. Why are regular salaried employed are ore in urban areas then in rural areas?

Ans : Because more employment opportunities are available in urban areas.

18. Men are found in greater proportion than women in regular salaried employment. Why?

Ans : Because men are more skilled and highly educated.

19. Define voluntary unemployment.

Ans : Those people are known to be voluntarily unemployed who are not working by choice.

20. What is seasonal unemployment?

Ans : I t is a situation in which people become unemployed due to change in season.

21. Define involuntary unemployment.

Ans : Those people who are ready to work at the prevailing wage rate but they are not getting any work.

22. Define under unemployment.

Ans : It refers to a situation when a worker does not work for full hours (normally 8 hours a day)

23. What is disguised unemployment?

Ans : It means that the number of workers employed in a job are much more than actually required. It is means the marginal productivity of the labour is zero.

24. Define open unemployment.

Ans : It refers to all those unemployed who have no work to do while they are willing to do the work on prevailing wages.

25. Distinguish between visible and invisible unemployment.

Ans : When people are not getting any work at prevailing wages, it is called visible unemployment. But, when people are employed in large number than required, it is invisible unemployment.

26. Name different kinds of visible unemployment.

Ans : (a) Cyclical unemployment

(b) Structural unemployment

(c) Frictional unemployment

27. What is educated unemployment?

Ans : When unemployment arises due to expansion of educational facilities, it is known as educated unemployment.

28. Define usual status unemployment.

Ans : A person is said to be unemployed on usual basis if he remains unemployed for more than 183 days in a year.

29. What is work force?

Ans : It refer to that labour force which is actually engaged in economic activities.

30. What is labour force?

Ans : It is the total number of persons who are available for participation in productive economic activities.

31. What is unemployed labour force?

Ans : The difference between labour force and work force is known as unemployed labour force.

32. Define frictional unemployment.

Ans : That unemployment which arises due to imperfections of labours market is known as frictional unemployment.

33. Define structural unemployment.

Ans : It arises due to change in demand pattern and supply structure.

34. What is meant by cyclical unemployment?

Ans : Such an unemployment is caused by cyclical activities in a capitalist system.

35. Define the term labour force participation.

Ans : It is the absolute number out of total labour force who are engaged in various occupations.

36. What is Current Daily Status Unemployment?

Ans : It is estimated in terms of total man days loss yet they are willing to work on daily basis.

37. Define current weekly status unemployment.

Ans : A person is said to be unemployed on weekly status basis if he has not worked for even one hour during the week but he was available for work.

38. Who is a casual wage labour?

Ans : Who does not get work every day regularly.


1. Why are regular salaried employed are ore in urban areas then in rural areas?

Ans : Because more employment opportunities are available in urban areas.

2. Why are less women found in regular salaried employment?

Ans : Because, women are not able to work regularly due to their family problems like marriage, children etc.

3. Analyse the recent trends in sectoral distribution of work force in India.

Ans : Recent trends is sectoral distribution of work force in India is as under:

Primary Sector: About 69% of work force was engaged in primary sector in 1983. This proportion has decreased to 64% in 1993-94 and then 56% in 2007-08.

Secondary Sector: The proportional of workforce was about 12% in secondary sector in 1983. It increased to 16% in 1993-94 but again decreased 14% in 2007-08.

Service Sector: About 17% of workforce was concentrated in service in 1983. It continued to rise. It increased from 20% to 30% during the period 1993-94 to 2007-08.

4. Compared to the 1970s, there has hardly been any change in the distribution of workforce across various industries. Comment.

Ans : In 1970 about 75% of workforce was engaged in primary sector. In 1999-2000 about 61% where as in 2007-08 about 56% of workforce were engaged in primary sector. It seems some change has taken place in the distribution of workforce. It is all due to the shifting of resources from primary to secondary and tertiary (service) sector.

5. Is it necessary to generate employment in the formal sector rather than in the informal sector? Why?

Ans : Yes, Because –

(a) In this sector workers can get more regular jobs in comparison to informal sector.

(b) Formal sector provides more security to the workers.

(c) Moreover, workers enjoy more social benefits like provident fund, gratuity and pension in this sector.

6. Victor is able to get work only for two hours in a day. Rest of the day, he is looking for work. Is he unemployed? Why? What kind of jobs could persons like Victor be doing?

Ans : Yes, he is considered as disguised or invisible unemployed, because, he get work for two hours a day. Where as he must get 8 hours daily. But he will continue to work for two hour at this stage also.

7. You are residing in a village. If you are asked to advice the village panchayat, what kinds of activities would you suggest for the improvement of your village which would also generate employment.

Ans : Self-employment activities in lean season in agriculture like basket making, clay pots, toys etc.

Social activities like construction of roads, bridges, canals, repair of school and hospital rooms etc.

These activities will generate employment and improve the standard of living of the poor in village. In this way there will be improvement in the village also.

8. Indian economy is marching ahead towards progress, explain.

Ans : The contribution of agriculture in national income is dealing. But the contribution of industries and service sectors is increasing continuously. Therefore, it is an indicator of economic progress of Indian economy.

9. Distinguish between formal and informal sector.

Ans : All public sector and private sector establishments which employ 10 hired workers or more are called formal sector establishments.

But, informal sector there is no hired workers. Thus, informal sector include millions of farmers, agricultural labourers, owners of small enterprises and self-employed.

10. Write the features of employment in India.

Ans : The features of employment in India are :

(a) Low rate of labour force participation.

(b) Low percentage of work force.

(c) Low productivity of labour force.

(d) Gap between rural and urban employment ratio.

11. What are the causes of difference in urban and rural workers ratio?

Ans : In Rural Areas :

(a) Lack of resources

(b) Lack of education.

In Urban Areas:

(a) Urban people have more employment opportunities.

(b) They get the appropriate job to suit their skills and qualifications.

12. What type of unemployment exists in rural and urban areas in India?

Ans : There are two main types of unemployment in rural areas in .

They are –

(a) Seasonal unemployment

(b) Disguised unemployment

Again, in urban areas the unemployment prevails are –

(a) Industrial Unemployment

(b) Educated unemployment

Educated unemployment is again of two types –

(a) General unemployment

(b) Technical unemployment

13. What are the main causes of unemployment in India?

Ans : The main causes of unemployment in India are :

(a) Increase in population

(b) Slow rate of economic growth.

(c) Low rate of capital formation.

(d) Backwardness of Indian agriculture.

(e) Lack of manpower planning.

14. Give some measures for the solution of unemployment problem.

Ans : The solution of unemployment problem are :

(a) Encouragement to small scale industries.

(b) Employment opportunities for women.

(c) Encouragement for self-employment.

(d) More expansion of employment exchanges.

(e) Policy towards seasonal unemployment.

(f) Educational Reforms.

15. Mention four unemployment alleviation programme taken by Indian Government.

Ans : The four main employment generation programmes as undertaken by the government of India during the Eight Plan are :

(i) Mahila Smridhi Yojana (MSY) : The Mahila Samridhi Yojana was launched on 2nd October, 1993 in order to benefit all rural adult women. This scheme entitles every adult woman who opens a Mahila Samridhi Yojana account with Rs. 300 to get an incentive of Rs. 75 for a year.

(ii) Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY) : Nehru Rozgar Yojana contemplated by the ministry of Urban Affairs was designed to create employment opportunities for urban poor. This programme was launched in October 1989 with the objective of providing employment opportunities to the unemployed and underemployed urban poor.

(iii) Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (PMIUPEP) : The Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme was launched in 1995-96 with a specific objective of effective achievement of social sector goals, community empowerment, employment generation and skill upgradation, shelter upgradation and environmental improvement with a multi-pronged and long-term strategy. The programme was to cover 5 million urban living in 345 class II urban agglomerations (towns) with a population of 50,000 to 1,00,000 each.

(iv) The Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) : The Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana  which subsumed the earlier three urban poverty programme, viz. NRY, urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP) and PMIUPEP came into operation from December 1997. These programme seeks to provide employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed poor living below poverty line and educated upto XI standard through encouraging the setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment. The scheme gives special impetus to empower as well as uplift the poor women.

10. The following table shows the shows the population and worker population ratio for Indian in 1999-2000. Can you estimate the work force for India?

Hence, the total workforce for India for the year 1999-2000 is 39.86 almost 40 crores.

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