Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Government The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Government and select need one.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Government
Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Government Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…
Chapter – 8
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – A
Q.1. Constitution of India Visualised Village Panchayats as unit of self government. Think over the situation described in the following statements and explain how do these situations strengthen or weaker the panchayats in becoming units of local self government.
(a) Government of a State has allowed a big company to establish a huge steel plant. Many Villages would be adversely affected by the steel plant. Gram Sabha of one of the affected villages Passed a resolution that before establishing any big industries in the region, village people must be consulted and their grievances should be redressed.
Ans :- It is said that many villages would be adversely affected by the steel plants. The Gram Sabha has Passed a resolution against it. It implies Sabha has passed a resolution against it. It implies that the gram Panchayat was not consulted before the Steel plant was detected by the state Government. This action of the state government will severely weaken the institution of Panchayats. The Gram Sabha of one of the affected villages passed the resolution that village people must be consulted and their grievances must be redressed. It will strengthen the Panchayats as it can now move to courts for direction against the unilateral move the state Government.
(b) The Government has decided that 20% of all expenditure would be done though the Panchayats.
Ans :- The decision of the State Government the 20% of all its expenditure would be done through the Panchayats, will surely help the finances of the Panchayats. It the State Government does not interfere in the decisions and the properties of the Panchayats, This Will Strengthen the Panchayat. At the same time the financial dependence of the local bodies on the state government will impinge on their capacity do operate effectively. The panchayats need independent sources of revenue.
(c) A village Panchayat kept on demanding funds for a building for village school, the government officials turned lawn their Proposal saying that funds were allocated for certain other schemes and cannot be spent otherwise.
Ans :- The basis idea for creation of Panchayat Raj institutions is that the people themselves Prioritise thier development agents. The turning down of the demand for funds to building a village school by government officials saying that the funds are allotted for certain other schemes, will surely weaken the panchayats in becoming units of self government.
(d) The government divided a village Dungar put into two and made a part of village Jamuna and Sohana. Now village Dungarpur has ceased to exist in Governments books.
Ans :- There is no mention here, whether the government has divided the village Durgapur into two villages on the recommendations of the Panchayat under which it falls. If government has done this on its own, then surely this action would waken Panchayati Raj- institutions. If has effected division on the recommendations of the concerned Panchayat the action would not weaken these institutions.
(e) A village Panchayat observed that water sources of their region are depleting fast. They decided to mobilize village youth to do come voluntary work and revive the old village ponds and wells.
Ans :- The mobilization of village youth to do some voluntary work and revive the old village ponds and wells will make the presence of there institutions felt. The village people will develop increased respect for the gram Panchayat. Thus, the panchayati Raj institutions would be strengthened.
Q.2 Suppose you are entrusted to evolve a local government plan of state, what powers would you endow to the village panchayats to function as units of local self-government? Merrion any five powers and the justification in two lines for each of them for giving those powers.
Ans:- If I am entrusted to evolve a local government plan of a state, the following powers I would endow to the village Panchayats to function as unit of self-government:
(i) Civic Amenities :- In the interest of better health and life citizens, Gram Panchayats would have the powers to make provisions for basic civic amenities.
(ii) Social welfare Activities :- The Gram Panchayat would keep the records of birth and death in the village, family planning and family welfare etc.
(iii) Agricultural Development :- The Programmes and policies related to the modern agricultural Practices should be supervised by the Panchayats
(iv) Development Works :- The gram Panchayats may be responsible for certain development functions at village level, such as construction of roads, tanks, irrigation facilities etc.
(v) Educational Work :- The Gram Panchayats would be made responsible for the primary education. I would give the gram Panchayats powers to open and maintains school and libraries in the village.
Q.3. What are the provisions for the reservations for the socially disadvantaged groups as pen 73rd amendment? Explain how these provisions have changed the Profile of the leadership at the village level.
Ans :- After a lengthy discussion and consideration, the parliament passed two Constitutional Amendment acts (73rd and 74th) in 1993. after passing of these act the rural and urban institutions of local self-government have received much needed constitutional recognition of grass root level democratic setup. The provisions of 73rd constitutional Amendment Act .
1993, related to Panchayati raj bodies in rural areas. It makes provisions for the reservations of seats at all three levels in favour of women, the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes and the other backward classes. The Panchayats have been given the power and responsibility of local planing and mobilization of their own resources. The provision for reservation for women of the Panchayati has ensured the presence of significant number of women in local bodies.
As this reservation is also applicable for the position of sarpanch and Adhyaksh, a large number of women elected representatives have come is occupy these positions. There are more than 80, 000 women sarpanch in Gram Panchayats.
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.4. What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment?
Ans :- The main differences between the local governments between 73rd amendment and after that amendment were that earlier local government was a state Subject. States were free to make their own kind of laws but now the local governments have received much needed constitutional recognition like state legislatures and the union parliament. In fact, it is a constitutional recognition of grass root level democratic set -up. This amendment act of 1993 made it mandatory to hold the elections of panchayats in due time on a regular basis.
It makes provisions for the reservations of seats at all three levels in favour of women, the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and often backward classes. The minimum age required to become a member of there Panchayats has been reduced to 22 years. To ensure timely and free and fair election to these bodies, Provisions have been made for the establishment of an independent state election commission in every state. The Panchayat have been given powers to levy, collect and appropriate such tax duties, tolls and fees in accordance’s with the provisions made by the state government.
The provisions have also been made for the establishment of a state. Finance commission in each state after every 5 years to review the finances of Panchayats and to make recommendations to what amount of grants are to be given to the panchayats by the state Government. This ensures their financial autonomy and viability.
Q.5. Read the provisions of the 73rd amendment which of the following concerns does this amendment address?
(a) Feas the replacement makes representatives accountable to the people.
Ans :- After 73rd Amendment Act. 1993 it is mandatory to hold election often every five years. If the state government dissolves the panchayats before the end of its five years term, fresh elections most be held within six months. It makes representatives accountable.
(b) The dominant castes and fendal landlord dominant the local bodies.
Ans :- After the 73rd Amendment Act, 1993 reservations for women, scheduled castes and the scheduled Tribes made necessary. The women have been given 1/3 reservation in local bodies at all levels and the seats have been released in favour of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in proportion of their population. As the Indian population 16.2% scheduled caste and 8.2% scheduled tribes, about 6.6 lakh elected members in local bodies are from these social groups. This has significantly altered the social profile of the local bodies. The dominant castes and feudal landlords, who controlled the villages earlier do not wish to give up their power. Due to this there is same tension and conflicts in the society.
(c) Rural illiteracy is very high. Illiterate people cannot take decisions about the development of the village.
Ans :- The subject included in the jurisdiction of Panchyati Raj institutions are listed in Eleventh schedule of the constitutions.29 subject were interested in this schedule which was indented in 1992 by the 73rd Constitutional amendment Act. Education including Primary and Secondary education in one of these Subject. It is the responsibility of state government to implement these provisions.
(d) To the effective, the village Panchayats need resources and powers to make plans for the village development.
Ans :- The panchayat have been given powers to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tools and fees an in accordance with the Provisions made by the state governments. The provisions have also been made the establishments of a state Finance commission after five years to review the finance of panchayats and to recommendations as what amount of grants to give to the panchayats by the state Government.
Q.6. The following are the different justification, give in favour of local government Give them ranking and explain why you attach greater significances to a particular rational then the others. According to you, on which of these rationales the decision of the Gram Panchayat of Vengaivasal Village was based? How?
(a) Government can complete the projects with lesser cost with the involvement of the local community.
(b) The development plans made by the local people will have greater acceptability than those made by the government officers.
(c) People know their area, needs problems and. Prioritise. By collective participation they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
(d) It is difficult for the common people to connect their representatives of the state or the national legislature.
Ans :- The different justifications are given in favour of the local government. Their ranking should be as follows-
1.(c) People know their area needs, problems and priorities. By collective participation they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
2.(a) Government can complete the protects with lesser cost with the involvement of the local community.
3.(b) The development plans made by the local people will have greater acceptability them those made by the government officers.
4.(d) In is difficult for the common people to connect their representative of the state or the national legislature.
The decision of the Gram Panchayat of Vengaivasal Village was based on the rationale. (c) People know their needs and priorities and they should take decisions about their life.
Q.7. Which of the following according to you involve decentralisation? Why are other options not sufficient for decentralisation?
(a) The hold election of the Gram Panchayat?
(b) Decision by the villagers themselves about what policies and programmes are useful for the village.
Ans :- (a) It is also a part of involvement of decentralisation but the main point of the involvement of decentralisation .
(b) Thought the election they elect their representatives who take decisions for the development of the village.
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