NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development

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NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Psychology Notes Paper 328.

NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 12 Domains of Development, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Domains of Development

Chapter: 12


Intext Questions & Answers

Q. 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words: 

1. Human life proceeds by_____________.

Ans. Stages.

2. Social expectations are known as _____________.

Ans. Developmental tasks.

3. Childhood is a_____________.

Ans. Stage.

4. Rate of growth is most rapid during_____________ .

Ans. First three years.

5. There is a decline in energy after the age of_____________ 

Ans. 50.

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

(a) Children gain _____________ as much in height during their first year of life as during the second year.

Ans. twice.

(b) Most children grow _____________  times in their birth weight during the first year and then gain only about _____________ of that during the second year.

Ans. three; one – fourth.

(c) Girls retain more _____________  adolescence than boys.

Ans. fatty tissue.

(d) Different areas of development are _____________.

Ans. physical, motor, mental, language, personality, psychosocial, emotional, moral, vocational.

2. State whether the following statements are true or false:

(a) Children grow very rapidly in middle childhood. T/F

Ans. False.

(b) Strength and energy are at their peak during 10 20 years. T/F

Ans. False.

(c) A baby’s brain reaches about two-thirds of its adult size during the first year, and four-fifths by the end of the second year. T/F

Ans. True.

(d) A sharp growth spurt occurs around adolescence. T/F

Ans. True.

Q. 3. What are milestones in development?

Ans. Milestones are ages at which particular skills are acquired.

2. State whether the statements below are true or false:

(a) Differentiation in development is followed by integration of movements into complex behaviour patterns. T/F

Ans. True.

(b) Babies begin to sit independently at the age of 4 months. T/F

Ans. False.

(c) Babies begin to walk at the age of 2 years. T/F

Ans. False.

(d) The child can grasp and manipulate at the age of 28 weeks. T/F

Ans. False.

(e) Motor skills are acquired in a definite order. T/F 

Ans. True.

Q. 4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

(a) _____________ is a twofold process through which children create new structures to deal effectively with their surroundings. 

Ans. Adaptation.

(b) _____________   is the taking in of a new object or experience or concept into an existing set of schemata. 

Ans. Assimilation.

(c) The process by which children change their actions to manage new objects and situations is called_____________.

Ans. Accommodation.

(d) Adaptation involves both _____________ and _____________.

Ans. Assimilation; accommodation.

(e) The basic unit or structure of the mind is called_____________.  

Ans. Schema.

(f) _____________ involves the integration of all processes into one overall system. 

Ans. Schemata.

Q. 5. State whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Children can not make moral judgments until they achieve a certain level of cognitive maturity. T/F

Ans. True.

2. In the first stage a child deals with moral concepts in a rigid way, while the second stage is characterised by moral flexibility. T/F

Ans. True.

3. In Stagel, a child views an act as totally right or totally wrong and thinks everyone sees it the same way. T/F

Ans. True.

4. In Stage 2, a child can put self in place of others and see others point of view. T/F

Ans. True.

Q. 6. State if the following statements are true or false:

1. After birth infants cannot determine where sounds are coming from. T/F

Ans. False.

2. Babies utter meaningful speech through distinct stages. T/F

Ans. True.

3. A child can speak sentences at the age of 3 years. T/F

Ans. True.

4. Between three and four years of age, children use three – to four – word ‘telegraphic’ sentences.

Ans. True.

Q. 7. Fill in the blanks:

(a) _____________ pirates on the reality principle and seeks an acceptable way to obtain gratification.

Ans. ego.

(b) The _____________ or conscience, incorporates the morals of society, largely through identification with the parent of the same sex.

Ans. super ego.

(c) In _____________  stage, their gratification _____________  from sucking any thing that can go in their mouth.

Ans. oral.

(d) In the _____________ stage, greatest pleasure comes from moving their bowels.

Ans. anal.

(e) In Oedipus complex, children show love for the _____________  sex _____________

Ans. opposite.

Q. 8. State which of the statements below are true or false: 

(a) The id is present at birth. T/F

Ans. True.

(b) The ego develops soon after birth. T/F

Ans. True.

(c) The superego does not develop until the age of 14 or 15. T/F

Ans. True.

(d) Personality development is the organization and expression of basic sexual energy or libido. T/F

Ans. True.

(e) According to Freud, the events of infancy and early childhood have nothing to do with adult personality. T/F

Ans. False.

Q. 9. State whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Newborns show only undifferentiated excitement. T/F

Ans. True.

2. Babies’ emotions differentiate as they grow older, proceeding from general to specific. T/F

Ans. True.

3. In the emotional sphere, the adolescent is capable of directing his emotions at abstract ideas and not just toward people. T/F

Ans. True.

4. Emotions are present at birth and their development is due to maturation and learning.

Ans. True.

Terminal Exercises

1. Discuss various stages of development and the age groups corresponding to these.

Ans. All children progress in a definite order through these stages and they all follow similar basic patterns. These stages along with the corresponding ages of the child have been identified by developmental psychologists as follows.

StageTime frame
prenatalbefore birth
infancy0 to 1 year
early childhood 1-3 years
preschool3-6 years
school childhood6-12 years
adolescence12-20 years
young adulthood20-30 years
adulthood 30-50 years
mature adult50-65 years
aging adult65+

(i) Prenatal Period (before birth)

Life begins at the time of conception. When the child is in the mother’s womb the particular period spent there is known as prenatal period. All important external and internal feelings start to develop at this stage.

(ii) Infancy (0 to 3 years)

From birth up to the third year of life, the stage is known as infancy. Babies grow very rapidly in size during their first three years. The acquisition of motor skills like holding things, crawling, walking proceeds from simple to complex.

(iii) Pre-school childhood (3-6 years) 

The growth in height is not as rapid during this stage as it is in infancy. Children improve eye, hand and small muscle coordination. For example they can draw a circle, pour fluids into a bowl, button and unbutton clothes, and language development is rapid.

(iv) School childhood (6-12 years – Primary school years) 

School children between the age of 6 to 12 years look much taller and thinner. Children exhibit rapid gains in strength and swiftness. They achieve new motor skills and their competence becomes more pronounced in all areas of development.

(v) Adolescence (12-20 years) 

It is the span of year between childhood and adulthood which begins at puberty. This is the period of rapid physiological growth. There are a number of psychological changes which also take place. Children jump rope, bicycle, ride horses, dance and indulge in all possible games. Cognitively they are more agile and social relationships become important. But the hallmark of this stage is the search for identity. A number of psychological changes also take place. Given sex roleexpectations, girls attach greater importance to good interpersonal relationships and the family while boys emphasize the importance of their own social prestige and career.

(vi) Adulthood (20-65+ years) 

For better understanding, adulthood can be divided into three stages. These are:

(i) Young adulthood (20-50 years).

(ii) Mature adulthood or the Middle years (50-65 years).

(iii) Ageing adulthood (65+ years) 

Strength and energy characterise this time of life from the middle twenties when most bodily functions are fully developed, until about the age of 50. Thereafter there is gradual decline in energy level.

2. What is a developmental task? 

Ans. Human life proceeds by stages. For example, childhood is a stage. After growing up to some degree the child proceeds to the adolescent stage. Each stage is characterized by a dominant feature, a leading characteristic which gives the period its uniqueness. For example, a child is expected to go to school and study and an adult is expected to work and support a family. 

Certain characteristics stand out more prominently than others in these periods and each period is called a stage. People learn certain behaviour patterns and certain skills more easily and successfully at certain stages and this becomes the social expectation. For example, a father is supposed to run the family and a child to study and go to school. Such social expectations of a particular age common to all persons are known as ‘developmental tasks’. Developmental tasks are social expectations of a particular age. Havighurst was the first developmental psychologist to identify the developmental tasks of different age groups.

3. What are the main areas of development? 

Ans. At each stage, development takes place in various areas or domains simultaneously. Development in the respective areas during different stages is discussed under the following aspects:

Physical: Physical development is about the physique, i.e. height and weight.

Motor: Motor Development is about muscular development and coordination. 

Cognitive: Cognitive development is about mental growth and intellectual development.

Language: Language development is about the way children learn language, and the age at which they acquire different components of language.

Personality development: It is about the total development of personality.

Psychosocial: Psychosocial development is about the cultural and societal influences on personality. 

Emotional: Emotional development is about different emotions at various stages and how they grow over a period of time.

Moral: It deals with what is right and what is wrong, the age at which this knowledge is acquired and with the rules of punishment and justice. Development of conscience and values also comes under the domain of moral development.

Vocational: It deals with choices about career and how they arise and are pursued in life.

Physical development:

Babies grow very rapidly in size during their first three years: Even the proportions of their bodies change markedly. They gain twice as much in height during their first year of life as compared to the second year. Most children grow three times of their birth weight during the first year and then gain only about one-fourth of that during the second year. During the third year, increments in both height and weight are smaller.

Preschool years: During the preschool years children’s height no longer increases as rapidly as during infancy. It continues to grow at a steady 2 to 3 inches per year until they reach the growth spurt that occurs during puberty.

Middle/ Late School childhood: School children between age of 6 to 12 look very different from their preschool brothers and sisters. They are much taller and thinner. Girls generally retain more fatty tissue than boys and continue to do so throughout adulthood. Younger boys are generally slightly heavier and taller than younger girls. But girls reach their pubescent growth spurt before boys and now tend to be larger. 

Adolescence is the span of years between childhood and adulthood. It begins at the age of twelve and ends at the age of twenty. Its beginning is marked by pubescence. It is that stage of rapid physiological growth when reproductive functions and primary sex organs mature, and when the secondary sex characteristics appear. A sharp adolescent growth spurt occurs around this stage. Strength and energy are at its peak during the age range 20-50 years and declines from this peak are so gradual that they are hardly noticed. After the age of 65, old age sets in that is marked by physical debilitation and loss of agility.

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