NIOS Class 12 Painting Chapter 13 Contemporary Indian Art

NIOS Class 12 Painting Chapter 13 Contemporary Indian Art Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Painting Chapter 13 Contemporary Indian Art and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Painting Chapter 13 Contemporary Indian Art Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Painting Notes Paper 332.

NIOS Class 12 Painting Chapter 13 Contemporary Indian Art

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Painting Chapter 13 Contemporary Indian Art, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Painting Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Folk Art

Chapter: 14


Intext Questions 14.1

Fill in the blanks:

1. Kalighat painting is done in _________ (Bengal/Madhya Pradesh).

Ans: Bengal.

2. The canvas has been divided with the help of _________ (Flat surface/Walls).

Ans: Flat surface.

3. _________ (Green/Red) color has been used.

Ans: Red.

4. The attraction of the ears are _________ (earrings/necklace).

Ans: Earrings.

5. The king is getting his _________ (hair cut/ ear cleaned).

Ans: Ear cleaned.

Intext Questions 14.2

Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 

1. The two villages of Andhra Pradesh _________, _________ are important centers of kalamkari.

Ans: Muslipatnam, Srikalahasti.

2. This technique is done by _________ and _________ on clothes.

Ans: Batik, printing.

3. _________ patterns has been used in ‘Life Tree’ painting.

Ans: Traditional Indian.

4. In the pattern of the tree _________ has been shown.

Ans: Branches.

Intext Questions 14.3 

1. Which animal has been shown in pic 49?

Ans: Snake and monkey.

2. What has been used to make human figure in this picture?

Ans: Triangles.

3. What is the name of the folk art of pic 49? 

Ans: Jitya-soma-mes.

4. Name the colors used in this picture.

Ans: White.

Pic 41. Kalighat Painting

Intext Questions 14.4 

Fill in the blanks:

1. In the picture so activities like _________ have been shown.

Ans: Puja, festival, war, horserider, court.

2. Bright _________ color have been used in the picture.

Ans: Red, yellow, green, black.

3. Rajasthani men and women are wearing _________

Ans: Traditional attire.

4. Animals like _________ have been shown in symbolic and miniature forms. 

Ans: Camel, horse, elephant.

5. Every human structure has been made smaller in _________ and _________ form.

Ans: Simple, proportional.

Short Type Questions Answer 

1. Describe kalighat painting. 

Ans: In the nineteenth century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. These paintings were done on cloth or patas. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama charita manas. The artistes were villagers who traveled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and festivals. These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’ were said to be half Hindu and half Muslim and practiced Islam.

Meanwhile the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. They set up institutions that imparted a European style of academic training to Indian artists. The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists-the patuas-to the city. Initially these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. Gradually, they started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. They started creating new forms of art and the Kalighat painting was born.

The Kalighat School was an agreeable and unique blend of two different styles of painting-the Oriental and the Occidental-and steadily gained popularity. Among the deities that the Kalighat artists painted, the goddess Kali was a favorite.

Images of Durga, Lakshmi, and Annapurna were also popular, especially during the Durga Puja festival. The artists also portrayed themes like Sita-Rama, Radha- Krishna and the exploits of Hanuman. Another theme depicted, dear to the Bengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his disciples. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with the tourists. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. The artists also chose to portray secular themes and personalities and in the process played a role in the Independence movement. They painted heroic characters like Tipu Sultan and Rani Lakshmibai.

Capturing Daily Life

An important achievement of the Kalighat artistes was that they made simple paintings and drawings, which could easily be reproduced by lithography. Such prints were then hand coloured. This trend continued up to the early part of the twentieth century and these paintings ended up in museums and private collections. The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artistes like the late Jamini Roy even to this day.

2. Describe kalamkari painting. 

Ans: Kalamkari is an ancient and exquisite art work of painted and printed fabrics. It literally means pen work. This art form is hand painted and block printed with the use of vegetable dyes. This Indian art has evolved in the last 3000 years and this legacy has been handed down from generation to generation.

In Andhra Pradesh, the art of kalamkari is synonymous with two ancient cities like Masulipatnam and Srikalahasti. Masulipatnam style of Kalamkari: features Persian influence with intricate and delicate forms and motifs commonly used were trees, flowers, creepers and leaf designs. With the Dutch influence, kalamkari art was started on bed covers, curtains and garments. Most of the indoor home décor items are usually placed according to colour schemes and even themes such as animal theme, nature theme, floral theme, spirituality theme, etc.

Srikalahasti Style of Kalamkari: this style of kalamkari painting is influenced by Indian temples. Scrolls and wall hangings with narratives and figurines from epics such as Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas, etc. deities such as Krishna, Brahma, Ganesha, Durga, Kiratavinyaarjuna, Lakshmi, Rama, Shiva and Parvathi were the main subjects.

Technique: The kalamkari goes through a vigorous process of resist-dyeing and hand printing. Kalamkari painting goes through a lot of treatment before and after the painting is done on the fabric. The colours change depending on the treatment of cloth and quality of the mordant. Every step in the process is painstakingly done and with perfection. Kalamkari paintings have a flourishing market in outside of India. The kalamkari art for sale is available in leading exhibitions that showcase and promote Indian handicrafts. 

3. Describe Warli painting.

Ans: These folk art paintings of the Warli tribes of Maharashtra depict their way of life in a lively manner. These tribes adorn the walls of their home with these paintings, during the harvest season, and during wedding and birth celebrations. The patterns of a Warli painting are usually circular or spiral. This indicates the circle of life. The colour scheme is very restricted, however. It is limited to stark white against earthen colored backgrounds. Geometric designs dominate. The painting units are dots and crooked lines. The typical themes are those of marriage. These depict the marriage god, Palghat, his horse and the bride and groom. These paintings are sacred to marriage ceremonies. Another popular theme of this form of folk art is that of men and women dancing in circles and spirals around a musician.

4. Describe phad painting of Rajasthan. 

Ans: The folk art painting called a phad, originates in Rajasthan, India. The smaller version of pad is known as phadakye. It is a cloth painting which venerates the deeds of a hero such as Goga Chauhan, Prithaviraj Chauhan, Amar Singh Rathor, Tejaji, and others. Today, the stories from the life of Papu ji, and Narayan Dev ji are primarily depicted.

The painting of a phad is a ritual of sorts. It commences with offerings to Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge and art. Thereafter, a rough draft of the sketch is made on the khadi cloth, and the figures are perfected. The empty spaces are then covered with flora and fauna. All figures are colored yellow initially and this base is called kachcha. Then the youngest virgin girl of the artist’s family or a family of a higher caste is called upon to make the first stroke. This ritual is followed by celebrations and distribution of sweets. Only one color can be used at a time and specific colors are used for different things- orange for limbs and torso, yellow for ornaments, clothing and designs, gray for structure, blue for water and curtains, green for trees and vegetation and red, prominently for dress. All these are outlined with bold black strokes, which give definition to these forms. As is now apparent, the colors are used in a fixed order, starting from orange- yellow to brown, green, red, and finally black. 

The phad painting is celebrated for its bold colors. These colors are usually vegetable dyes. However, threatened by the scarcity of these natural colors, artists have started making waterproof earthen colors by pounding them with gum, water and indigo.

A traditional phad runs the length of thirty feet, and is five feet wide. 

5. Describe Madhubani painting.

Ans: These folk art paintings are painted on household walls by the women of the Madhubani village in Bihar, India. They paint figures from nature and mythology to mark the seasonal festivals, and for special events such as marriages. The technique of painting a Madhubani is zealously guarded by the women in the family, and passed on from mothers to their daughters. Though the women of this small village in Bihar have been painting for centuries, their work was only recognized in the 1960s, when a drought hit the area. Then, people had to think of an alternative non- agricultural way of earning money. They began to sell their paintings. 

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