NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 23 World War-I And The Russian Revolution

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 23 World War-I And The Russian Revolution, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 23 World War-I And The Russian Revolution and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 23 World War-I And The Russian Revolution Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 23 World War-I And The Russian Revolution

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 23 World War-I And The Russian Revolution, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

World War-I And The Russian Revolution

Chapter: 23




Q. 1. What were the new weapons used in World War I?

Ans: Airplanes, tanks and submarines were the new weapons used in World War I.

Q. 2. Name the two main international/alliances formed by 1914.

Ans: (i) Triple Entente.

 (ii) Triple Alliance.

Q. 3. How many people were affected by World War I?

Ans: Ten million people were killed, 20/million wounded and millions became refugees. 

Q. 4. Which side did Indian soldiers fight on in World War I?

Ans: Indian soldiers fought on the British side in World War I.


Q. 1. What was the political system in/Russia before the Revolution?

Ans: The political system in Russia before the Revolution was ‘autocracy’.

Q. 2. What other name is the Russian Revolution of 1917 known as?

Ans: Bolshevik Revolution.

Q. 3. Name the important political groups in Tsarist Russia.

Ans: (i) Social Democrats.

 (ii) Liberals.

(iii) Social Revolutionaries.

Q. 4. What is meant by abolition of/private property? 

Ans: Abolition of private property means production owned by the state.


Q. 1. Describe the political system in Tsarist Russia. Why were peasants dissatisfied with the autocracy? 

Ans: (i) By February 1917, Russia was a multinational empire, ruled by an autocrat, who was known as Tsar. The territory was huge, including a large part of Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe.

(ii) There were no representative institutions, no right to form political or trade union organisations, no elections.

(iii) There was strict censorship and arbitrary arrests. There was no religious tolerance, and the other nationalities and minorities in the Europe did not enjoy equal rights with the Russians, because the Tsar, Nicholas II, belonged to the Russian Romanov dynasty.

(iv) The Tsar used his military and diplomatic strength against all democratic movements in Europe.

Peasants’ dissatisfaction with the Autocracy

(i) Peasants were also dissatisfied with the autocracy. The landed aristocracy remained strong and continued to oppress the peasants. Peasants constituted about 80 percent of the population, but had hardly 50 percent of the land. The demand for land was therefore, a major cause for anger against the Tsar.

(ii) The freed peasants were also angry because they had to pay very heavily for both land and freedom. The Tsar was interested in keeping the goodwill and support of the big landlords by giving more than fair compensation to them.

(iii) The peasants had to pay such a heavy price that they remained continually in debt, and were forced to work very cheaply for the landlords.

(iv) Peasants were also very heavily burdened with taxes.

(v) The peasants did not have enough money to invest in the improvement of their land, so, agriculture remained backward.

(vi) In all matters of interest to the peasants the autocracy sided with the landlords and set out troops to suppress peasants’ revolts.

Q. 2. Why did the different nationalities revolt?

Ans: Reasons of revolt by the different nationalities:

(i) The relationship between the Russian Romanov dynasty and the other nationality regions was almost colonial in nature, with these areas being used as sources of raw material for development of industries in Russian regions.

(ii) These nationalities such as the Caucasians, the Polish, the Kazakhs, the Latvians, the Estonians and others played an important role in overthrowing the Russian autocracy.

Q. 3. Why was the revolution of 1905 important?

Ans: Importance of the Revolution of 1905:

(i) It was the first major popular attack on the autocracy. The people learnt many important lessons through this experience.

(ii) For the first time there was a general strike. of the army and navy also revolted, and a revolutionary organisation of the working class known as Soviet was formed. It played a leading role in the revolution.

(iii) The main demands of this revolution were a democratic republic, universal franchise, land for peasantry, and higher wages and a shorter working day for workers. Women’s equality, right of self determination for the different nationalities and abolition of capital punishment were other demands.

Q. 4. What happened in February 1917 in Russia? 

Ans: (i) In February 1917 a revolution took place in Russia.

(ii) The revolution was sparked off by shortages of bread, and a demonstration of women who called on the soldiers to support their brothers and sisters rather than the Tsar who opposed them. The soldiers who were also fed up with the war did not fire on the agitating people.

(iii) A few days later came the demand: ‘Down with Autocracy’. Red flags dominated the cityscape of St. Petersburg, the capital city, and soon the entire territory of the Empire was aflame with cries of revolution. The autocracy was overthrown and replaced by a Provisional Government.

(iv) The workers and peasants played an important role in this change, and the bourgeoisie supported it. Even the soldiers came to the side of the revolutionary forces. St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd.

Q. 5. Give the main changes brought about by the Bolshevik. Do you think they were in the interest of the Russian people? 

Ans: The main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks:

(i) Its policies laid the foundation of socialism in Russia. 

(ii) One of its first acts was to withdraw from the war.

(iii) The Bolsheviks abolished private property in the means of production i.e., land, factories, and banks, all of which were nationalised and now owned by the state and not by private owners. This means that they could not be used ot exploit the labour of others and make private profit anymore. Workers organisations had a greater say in the decision making processes.

(iv) Through the land decree of November 1917 landlordism was abolished and land was given over to peasants for hereditary use.

(v) Peasants could not sell or mortgage the land or use it to exploit the labour of others, but they were masters of their land and enjoyed the full fruits of their labour and produce from the land. They did not have to depend on former landlords in any way, whose powers over rural economy and society were demolished.

(vi) Now, the Russian people became equal beneficiaries of the resources and economy of the country. It also became possible now to plan centrally for the benefit of all parts and all sections of the people. This system of centralised planning was seen as important and was adopted by many countries, including India.

(vii) The new constitution guaranteed free medical care, free and equal education for all, an unemployment allowance, equal access to culture and cultural advancement. Not all of this was immediately available, but by making these a right for all, the new regime showed the direction of its policy and commitment.

(viii) The differentials between people holding middle class type of jobs and those working on land or in the factories were far less than in other countries-both in terms of salaries and entitlement to facilities provided by the state.

(ix) Standard of life was not dependent on whether one could personally pay, because many things did not have to be paid for.

(x) Women were not just considered equal: a lot of measures were taken to make their equal participation in social and political life possible: maternity leave, public canteens-free creches at workplaces etc.

(xi) They considered their state the ‘dictatorship of the working class’ because the working, ordinary people and their welfare was now the basis of polity and policies.

(xii) The new regime gave moral and some physical support to independence struggles against colonial rule, and recognized the right of all nationalities to decide their own future. For this reason the Russian Revolution was lauded in all Asian countries and inspired people all over the world.

Q. 6. Write a few lines on the impact of the revolution in India.

Ans: (i) India was greatly influenced by the Russian Revolution. Nationalist leaders in India realised the significance of the intervention of peasants and workers in political struggles.

(ii) People in India sensed that a ‘Kisan- mazdoor raj’ has been established in Russia.

(iii) The 1920’s thus saw the formation of Workers and Peasants Parties, the All India Trade Union Congress, and increasing efforts in India to organise workers and peasants.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q. 1. All the European nations except the following were involved in a war which connected the whole world in its violence and suffering.

(a) Spain. 

(b) Switzerland.

(c) Netherlands.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 2. The event which spiraled into World War I was the:

(a) fight between USA and Britain over colonies.

(b) murder of ArchDuke Franz Ferdinand.

(c) Clash between the Dutch and France.

(d) none of the above.

Ans: (b) murder of ArchDuke Franz Ferdinand.

Q. 3. The parties to the Triple Alliance were:

(a) Germany and Austria.

(b) Austria and Hungary, Italy.

(c) Italy, Germany, Austria.

(d) Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.

Ans: (d) Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.

Q. 4. The parties to the Triple Entente were:

(a) USA, Britain, France. 

(b) France, Japan, China.

(c) Britain, France, Russia.

(d) Russia, USA, Britain.

Ans: (c) Britain, France, Russia.

Q. 5. The Russian Revolution took place in:

(a) October 1917

(b) November 1918

(c) March 1914

(d) June 1916

Ans: (a) October 1917

Q. 6. Who of the following played the leading role in the Russian Revolution?

(a) Russians.

(b) Bolsheviks.

(c) Kazaks.

(d) Uzbeks.

Ans: (b) Bolsheviks.

Q. 7. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was the first:

(a) capitalist revolution.

(b) cultural revolution.

(c) socialist revolution. 

(d) religious revolution.

Ans: (c) socialist revolution.

Q. 8. The new weapon used in World War I was:

(a) Airplanes.

(b) Tanks.

(c) Submarines. 

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 9. How many people were killed in World War I?

(a) 10 million. 

(b) 11 million.

(c) 12 million. 

(d) 20 million.

Ans: (a) 10 million. 

Q. 10. Which side did Indian soldiers fight on in World War I?

(a) USA.

(b) Japan.

(c) France. 

(d) Britain. 

Ans: (d) Britain. 

Q. 11. What was the political system in Russia before the Revolution?

(a) Autocracy.

(b) Democracy.

(c) Absolute monarchy.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (a) Autocracy.

Q. 12. The Bolsheviks abolished private property in the means of production such as:

(a) Land.

(b) Factories.

(c) Banks.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 13. The new constitution of Russia guaranteed:

(a) free medical care.

(b) free and equal education for all.

(c) an unemployment allowance.

(d) all of the above.

Ans: (d) all of the above.

Q. 14. The Russian Revolution actually took place on:

(a) 18 October, 1917

(b) November 7, 1917 

(c) November 11, 1917

(d) December 7, 1917

Ans: (b) November 7, 1917

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