# NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 18 Development

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## NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 18 Development

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 18 Development Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 18 Development Notes, NCERT Class 10 Social Science Textbook for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

### Development

Chapter – 18

UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (ECONOMICS)

TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by:

(a) its per capita income.

(b) its average literacy level.

(c) health status of its people.

(d) all the above.

Q. 2. Which of the following neigh-bouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?

(b) Sri Lanka.

(c) Nepal.

(d) Pakistan.

Q. 3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 5000. If the incomes of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?

(a) Rs. 7500

(b) Rs. 3000

(c) Rs. 2000

(d) Rs. 6000

Total income of four families = 5000 × 4 = 20,000

Total income of three families = 4000 + 7000 + 3000 14,000

Income of the fourth family = 20000 14000 = 6000

Q. 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

Or

Describe the main criterion used by World Bank to classify different countries of the World.

Answer: I. Average Income or Per Capita Income: In World Development Report, 2006, the World Bank has used the criterion of average income or per capita income in classifying different countries. The average income or the per capita income is the total income of the country divided by its population. According to the above report, countries with per capita income of Rs. 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries and those with per capita income of Rs. 37,000 or less are called low income countries.

II. Limitations: Limitations of this criterion are that while average income is useful for competition, it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. A country may have a more equitable distribution. People may be neither very rich nor extremely poor. But in another country with same average income, one person may be extremely rich, while others may be very poor. So, the method of average income does not give the correct picture of a country. This system hides disparities among people.

Q. 5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer: UNDP (i.e. United Nations Development Programme) compares countries on the basis of educational level of people, their health status and per capita income per annum while the criterion used by World Bank is merely that of per capita income or average income for measuring development. In brief, Human Development criterion is used by UNDP while only economic development by the World Bank.

Q. 6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Or

Why are averages being used for comparison of development of countries and what are the limitations of this criterion?

Answer: I. Purpose: Averages are used only to get a rough idea of the income per individual within a specified time frame (monthly, quarterly or annually).

II. Yes, because ‘averages’ are useful for comparison but they hide disparities and do not tell how the income is distributed among people.

For example, let us consider the two countries, A and B. For the sake of simplicity, we have assumed that they have only five citizens each. We can represent this situation in the following table:

Table: Comparison of two countries

Here we see that in spite of a large disparity in distribution of income among citizens of the “B” country, the average is worked out at the same amount i.e., Rs. 10,000. Poor citizens are receiving only Rs. 500 each while one among them is earning Rs. 48,000 per month. Thus, country “B” is achieving only economic development while it appears from almost equal figures for each citizen of country “A” that there is honored human development. People therefore, would like to settle in country “A” instead of country “B”.

Q. 7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Answer: I. Some Comparative Datas on Punjab and Kerala.

II. do agree in full with the statement.

Discussion:

(i) No doubt Kerala’s per capita income is lower than Punjab as given in table. But the other factors such as infant mortality rate per 1,000 (year 2003) is 11 in Kerala while it is 49 in Punjab. It indicates health facilities are neglected in Punjab.

(ii) Another criterion of net attendance ratio is also more favorable in Kerala than Punjab.

(iii) Total literacy rate of Kerala is also more favorable than Punjab.

Q. 8. Find out present sources of energy used by people in India. What could be possibilities fifty years from now?

Answer: I. Main sources of energy: The following sources of energy are used by people in India:

(i) Man.

(ii) Animal.

(iii) Coal.

(iv) Electricity-hydroelectricity and electric power.

(v) Petrol.

(vi) Diesel.

(vii) Kerosene oil.

(viii) Natural Gas.

(ix) Solar energy.

(x) Nuclear power energy.

II. Possibilities after fifty years: India will face crisis of some sources of energy such as petroleum and petroleum products. Even today, India depends on imported oil from abroad because she does not have enough stock till date. The rising prices of oil and its related articles are becoming a burden for everyone. India will have to use solar energy as a main source of energy or she will have to find out new alternatives.

Q. 9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Answer: Importance of Sustainability: Sustainable development means that a development should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The issue of sustainable development has emerged from rapid industrialisation of the world in the past century. It is felt that the economic growth and industrialisation have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources. Sustainability promotes a rational use of natural resources.

The earth has enough non-renewable resources to meet our present and future needs for development if we use them in an economic manner. But, if we use them recklessly in the greed of rapid economic development, our world may become a vast waste land.

Q. 10. “The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.

Answer: Earth has enough resources such as land, water, forests, climate, rainfall, minerals etc. These resources are freely rendered by nature. The importance of resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person, because that one person may exploit the natural resources recklessly. The reckless exploitation of resources (which are limited in stock) may led to their exhaustion and may damage the environment. It will hamper the development process in all the countries in the world because minerals and fossil fuels are essential for development.

The reckless use of fossil fuels and minerals may disturb the balance in nature. Therefore, it is necessary to use resources judiciously and adopt the environment friendly strategies of development.

Q. 11. List a few examples of environ. mental degradation that you may have observed around you.

(i) Ground water is under serious threat of overuse in many parts of our country.

(ii) Forests are being cut down in different regions and states.

(iii) Wild animals and livestock are being hunted and killed by the people.

(iv) Coal, oil and petroleum products are being consumed rampant for different purposes.

(v) Construction of dams without proper planning of resettlement of native people of the area.

(vi) Use of fertilizers and pesticides by farmers on a large scale.

Q. 12. For each of the items given in the following table, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.

TABLE: SOME DATA REGARDING INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBORS FOR 2004

Answer: (i) in view of per capita income, Sri Lanka is at the top while Myanmar is at the bottom.

(ii) As far as life expectancy at birth is concerned, Sri Lanka is at top and Myanmar is at bottom.

(iii) As far as literacy rate for the 15 + yrs population is concerned, Sri Lanka is at the top and Bangladesh is at the bottom.

(iv) As far as gross enrolment ratio for three levels is concerned, Sri Lanka is at the top and Pakistan is at the bottom.

(v) As far as HDI rank in the world is concerned, Sri Lanka is at top and Nepal is at the bottom.

Q. 13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults the India. It is based on a survey of various states in the country for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions:

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

Answer: Kerala has only 22% male and 19% female adults living undernourished while percentage of undernourished in Madhya Pradesh is the worst (viz. 43% adult males and 42% adult females are suffering from malnutrition).

(ii) Can you guess why around 40 percent of people in the country are under-nourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.

Answer: It is because of disparities in the distribution system prevailing in India. PDS etc. are for namesake as corruption is found rampant there.

Owing to ambivalent policies at institutional level, laws are made but implementation is left upon arbitrary hands.

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