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Literature and Cinema Unit 4 From Russia With Love
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From Russia With Love
LITERATURE AND CINEMA
Very Short Type Question & Answers
1. Who wrote ‘From Russia with Love’?
Ans: Ian Fleming wrote ‘From Russia with Love”.
2. Who performed the theme song for the James Bond film ‘From Russia, With Love’?
Ans: Matt Monro.
3. Who was the author who introduced James Bond to us?
Ans: Ian Fleming.
4. Who is the name James Bond inspired from, according to Ian Fleming?
Ans: An American Ornithologist.
5. When were the Bond novels published?
Ans: It was published between 1953 – 1966.
6. How many chapters are there in the novel?
Ans: ‘From Russia With Love’ has 28 chapters divided into two parts: the Planning and the Execution.
7. What is the real name of ‘Red Grant’?
8. Which book is mentioned in the opening page of the story?
Ans: The Little Nugget.
9. According to Fleming, which famous movie star does Tatiana Romanova look like?
Ans: Greta Garbo.
10. According to chapter 4, what number building is SMERSH located?
Ans: No 13.
11. Who in the novel is described as a “Toad-figure”, who also walks in short, quick steps?
Ans: Colonel Rosa Klebb.
12. According to the top secret Zapiska file from SMERSH, what two languages is James Bond fluent in?
Ans: French and German.
13. Who is the director of planning for SMERSH?
14. What is Kerim Bey also known as?
15. In what book did Grant hide his gun, whilst on the train towards the end of the novel?
Ans: War and Peace.
16. Who ‘kills’ Bond?
Ans: Rosa Klebb.
17. Where is the man sunbathing?
Ans: A swimming pool.
18. Why is the masseuse nervous of her client?
Ans: He works for the government.
19. What will happen to the masseuse if she tells anyone anything she overhears?
Ans: She will be executed.
20. What interrupts the massage session?
Ans: A telephone call.
21. What organization does the man’s phone have a direct line to?
22. What is SMERSH the secret branch of?
23. What countries government is MGB part of?
24. What is Donavan Grant’s job at SMERSH?
Ans: Hired killer.
25. What city does Grant have to fly to?
26. What is the author’s style in the story?
Ans: One of the most interesting parts of Flemming’s style is his use of internal dialogue. In using internal dialogue, he gives the reader a intimate look at the main characters.
27. Mention the cast of the movie.
Ans: Sean Connery (James Bond), Daniela Bianchi (Tatiana Romanova), Pedro Armendáriz (Kerim Bey), Lotte Lenya (Rosa Klebb) and Robert Shaw (Red Grant).
28. Mention about the production unit.
Ans: Studio: Aeon Productions.
Director: Terence Young.
Producers: Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman.
Writers: Richard Maibaum and Johanna Harwood.
Music: John Barry.
Running time: 115 minutes.
29. Who is James Bond?
Ans: James Bond is a British literary and film character. He is often depicted as a peerless spy, notorious womanizer, and masculine icon. He is also designated as agent 007 (always articulated as “double-oh-seven”) in the British Secret Intelligence Service, or MI6.
30. Upon whom the history of James Bond is based on?
Ans: There is no single historical figure the character James Bond is based on. Many have speculated that Bond’s creator, Ian Fleming, likely drew inspiration from more than one secret agent he learned of from his experience working with British naval intelligence. Potential real-life inspirations for Bond included World War II secret agent F.F.E. Yeo – Thomas and Serbian double agent Dusko Popov.
31. When was James Bond created?
Ans: English novelist Ian Fleming first introduced the James Bond character in his 1953 thriller Casino Royale.
32. What does James Bond drink?
Ans: The most well-known drink James Bond requests is a vodka martini, with the specific direction that it be “shaken, not stirred.”
33. What actor portrayed James Bond in the most franchise films during the 20th century?
Ans: Roger Moore starred as James Bond in the most films produced by the “official” Bond franchise, Eon Productions Limited: seven. Sean Connery followed closely behind, having played the role in six Unproduced Bond films. (Two Bond films from the 20th century were not produced by Eon and thus are often excluded from consideration.)
Short Type Question & Answers
1. What is the background of the story?
Ans: From Russia with Love was the fifth novel by author Ian Fleming to feature his distinctively British secret agent James Bond. It would be the one that catapulted Bond from regional hero to global phenomenon because one day a reporter from Life Magazine thought it would be a novel idea to have President John F. Kennedy creates a list of his ten favourite books to be published in an upcoming issue. As soon as readers saw the unfamiliar title From Russia with Love and learned the Kennedy was a big fan of some British spy named James Bond, sales of Ian Fleming’s books skyrocketed. Not long after, Fleming inked the deal to sell the movie rights to all his Bond novels except Casino Royale to the production company which would go on to make films out of every Bond novel.
From Russia with Love is generally regarded as Fleming’s best James Bond adventure, as well as the one that cemented his status as fiction’s foremost fighter of communist threats. Speculation has always maintained that this novel was intended to be Bond’s version of Sherlock’s “The Final Problem.” In both stories, a legendary hero appears to have died, but in a way brimming with ambiguity. Sure enough, just as Sherlock returned from the grave to face “The Empty House” so was Bond resurrected to do battle with the nefarious Dr. No. The story told in From Russia with Love was inspired by a trip Ian Fleming took to Turkey and his return trip home via the Orient Express. Indeed, some of the action does take place on the legendary train route made famous by another British writer, Agatha Christie.
2. Not that it matters, but a great deal of the background to this story is accurate.” Why does Ian Fleming preface the narrative with this caution and assertion?
Ans: Of interest is that Fleming interjects two opposing ideas into the reading experience. (The same ploy was used almost word-for-word on some posters for Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid except that it actually was based on history.) The significant part, of course, is the author’s contention that much of wh lows is steeped in authenticity. This actually happens to be true; many parts of the story are inspired by verifiable incidents of history. At the same time, however, inspiration is transformed into spy thriller dramatics which are not verifiable at all. This creates a dilemma for the author who wants to tamp down the more fantastical elements of his story more firmly into grounded reality, but does not want readers confusing the fantastical with the realistic. Thus, the need to offer an assertion tempered by a caution.
3. One of the elements of the novel which provides background accuracy is the sequence aboard the Orient Express. What real-life spy drama inspired this section?
Ans: The Orient Express was already the famous transcontinental passenger rail service in the world when Agatha Christie gave it international renown and a lifetime legacy as the setting of her most famous mystery novel. Intelligence officers from both sides of the Iron Curtain routinely made the trip, but in nearly every case without incident of any kind. In 1950, however, attaché for the U.S. Navy in Romania named Eugene Karpe boarded the Orient Express carrying a briefcase filled with highly sensitive intelligence documents. He never reached his destination. Instead, his bruised and battered body was discovered by a railroad walker inside a tunnel to the south of Salzburg. The death was ruled to be an accident, but Fleming (and others) had little trouble constructing a much more sinister version of events which Fleming later used to create high drama in his novel.
4. What is Spektor?
Ans: Like the sequence with Bond aboard the Orient Express, Spektor is another of those elements of the fictional thriller steeped in “background accuracy.” In this particular case, the historical analogue is not situated in the frigid intricacy of intelligence gathering and stealing machinations the Cold War, but the very hotly contested spy competition of World War II. Specktor is the highly sought-after code-breaking machine of the Soviets which Bond ponders would be a “priceless victory” even if it were only out of the hands of the Russians just long enough for them to change the settings or remove it entirely from service. A single intelligence code – breaking machine endowed with the power of a Rosetta Stone seems to be one of those extremely unlikely plot devices constructed entirely for dramatic purposes, but in fact it is based substantially on the real-life Enigma code encryption device used by the Nazis with such great success until it was notoriously broken by the Allies. Specktor is the bait used by the Soviets to lure Bond into their very complex and broad-based trap to bring down the entire British intelligence system.
5. Why is the masseuse afraid of the man?
Ans: The girl knows the man works for the government and she is afraid of him because she has been warned that if she tells anyone anything she might learn in his company, the government will execute her. In addition, there is something sinister about him that frightens her.
6. Describe Grant’s upbringing.
Ans: Grant was born to an Irish woman and a German weight lifter. Grant’s mother died in childbirth, so he was raised by his mother’s aunt. As a teenager, Grant began having feelings of intense need that he could only satisfy with murder.
7. How did Grant’s murderous desires create problems for him?
Ans: As a teenager Grant would wander the countryside and kill innocent woman. When the murders began to attract the attention of the local officials. Grant decided to join the Royal Corp where his needs were temporarily satisfied through amateur boxing. However, even his temper again grew out of control and Grant was thrown out of the service for foul fighting.
8. What ‘From Russia with Love’ means.
Ans: “From Russia with Love” is a James Bond film from 1963 starring Sean Connery as 007. The film included Robert Shaw, who played Donald “Red” Grant, and Bernard Lee, who played the character “M.”
In “From Russia with Love,” Bond finds himself trapped in an assassination plot that involves a naive Russian woman. Bond hopes to secure a Soviet Union device that has stolen by the nefarious group SPECTRE. Throughout the film, Bond and the Russian woman Tatiana Romanova fall in love while working together to stop the evil plot. At the end of the film, they reach a hotel in Venice where they are subsequently attacked. Romanova saved Bond’s life and head off on a romantic boat ride together.
The films (and the book) take places on the Orient Express train, too.
9. What is the part of cold war in the story?
Ans: Ian Fleming’s From Russia with Love reflects themes of the early Cold War. 1950s Britain was deeply concerned with communist defectors, and cases like the Burgess Maclean affair made it to the headlines. Not only are two of the novel’s central characters defectors, but their vitae and actions are used to contrast the political systems of Britain and the Soviet Union. The USSR functions as a distorting mirror to highlight the advantages of British society over the enemy. Yet only six years later, changes in the Cold War’s political climate led to significant alterations in the adaptation of From Russia with Love for film. Anti-communist sentiments are toned down, and international terrorism poses a bigger threat than Anglo-Soviet antagonism. Thus two variations of the same plot illustrate the Bond series’ versatility in mirroring and anticipating societal concerns.
10. Why did Bond tell Tania they were going to rob the consulate on the 14th when he really intended to do it on the 13th?
Ans: In case Tania was planning on betraying Bond. Bond considered that Tania was trying to entrap him and as soon as he attempted to rob the consulate he would be ambushed by Russian authorities and arrested (Tania would have tipped them off that Bond was going to rob the consulate and steal the Lektor). However, if Bond told Tania they were going to do the job on the 14th and Tania was planning on betraying Bond, she would have told the Russians to be prepared to arrest him on the 14th when in reality they were doing the job on the 13th. This would catch Tania and the Russians off-guard and they would not have been prepared to arrest Bond, giving him a better chance of getting away with stealing the Lektor.
11. Wasn’t that Werner Klemperer (Col. Klink, from Hogan’s Heroes) who met the Russian woman as she got off the helicopter? He’s uncredited.
Ans: No, the actor in that scene is Walter Gotell, who appears throughout the film as “Morzeny,” one of SPECTRE’s lead field agents.
12. What is “From Russia with Love” about?
Ans: When Russian agent Tatiana “Tanya” Romanova (Daniela Bianchi) contacts MI6 asking to defect and offering to bring with her the Lektor decoder, M (Bernard Lee) suspects that it’s a trap and sends 007 agent James Bond (Sean Connery) to meet her, none of them knowing that it’s actually a plot orchestrated by Ernst Blofeld (Anthony Dawson) and SPECTRE agents Kronsteen (Vladek Sheybal) and Rosa Klebb (Lotte Lenya).
13. Is “From Russia with Love” based on a book?
Ans: The majority of the James Bond movies are based, at least in part, upon stories by British author Ian Fleming [1908-1964]. From Russia with Love is based on Fleming’s 1957 novel of the same name. It was adapted for this film by American screenwriters Richard Maibaum and Johanna Harwood.
14. Who sings the title song?
Ans: From Russia With Love is sung by British singer Matt Munro. Only the melody is used in the opening titles, the full song isn’t heard until the final scene.
15. What exotic places does Bond visit in this movie?
Ans: At the start of the movie, Bond is in London when he is called to work. M sends him to Istanbul, Turkey to meet with defecting Russian operative, Tatiana Romanova. Once they have the Lektor, Bond and Tanya, posing as David and Caroline Sommerset, hop on the Orient Express, which takes them across Bulgaria to Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). The train continues across Yugoslavia to Zagreb (now Croatia), where he expects to get documentation to get him out of Yugoslavia and into Trieste, Italy. Instead, SPECTRE assassin Donald “Red” Grant (Robert Shaw) has killed Bond’s contact and assumed the identity of British agent “Nash”. In the final scene, Bond and Tanya wind up on a gondola in Venice, Italy. A map showing their route can be viewed here.
16. How does the title play into the movie?
Ans: Just before he leaves for Istanbul, Bond is given a photo of Tanya Romanova. Before he returns the photo to M, Bond writes on it, “From Russia With Love.”
17. What is SPECTRE?
Ans: SPECTRE stands for “The Special Executive for Counterintelligence, Terrorism, Revenge and Extortion.” SPECTRE is an international terrorist organization run by Ernst Stavro Blofeld. Its members are recruited from the Gestapo, Smersh, the Mafia, and the Union Corse among others. With the exception of Gold finger (1964), all of the Bond villains from 1962-71 come from this organization. In Fleming’s book, however, the plot was cooked up by SMERSH, a Soviet – Russian organization whose name (“smiert shpionam”) meant “death to spies.” SMERSH is mentioned in this film, but the antagonistic organization for the early Bond films was changed from the books (where SMERSH is clearly a Soviet force) to the non-country-specific SPECTRE. Number Three in this film is a former SMERSH operative, now working outside the Soviet Union for SPECTRE.
18. Who was that guy who followed Bond and Tanya onto the train?
Ans: That man is Benz (Peter Bayliss), a Soviet agent responsible for watching airports and stations. He can also be seen during the meeting on which Bond. and Ali Kerim Bey. (Pedro Armendáriz) spy with the periscope underneath the Soviet embassy.
19. Why are the Russians employing Bulgarians to spy on people in Istanbul?
Ans: Bulgaria was a Communist satellite state of the Soviet Union during the Cold War era. Bulgaria also borders Turkey so it would be more convenient for the Soviets to employ Bulgarian spies to do their dirty work in the Balkan area.
20. Klebb mentions the Cold War in Turkey, but didn’t the Cold War involve America and Russia?
Ans: The Cold War involved the Warsaw Pact and NATO countries. As this movie shows, those two sides carried out their spy games in countries all over the world, including Turkey.
21. What are some of the differences from the novel?
Ans: SMERSH are the villains of the story. Bluffed is not in the book, instead the villains’ boss is a general named Gruzaboyschikov. Kronsteen does not die. Bond and Kerim Bey assassinate Krilencu when he enters through Marilyn Monroe’s mouth in a poster for Niagara (1953). There are no chase scenes. Grant’s first name is Donovan instead of Donald. The decoding machine is called a “Spektor”. The Spektor is booby trapped with a bomb. Grant’s weapon is a gun hidden in a book. He shoots Bond as the train goes through a tunnel but Bond’s cigarette case and book stop the round from entering his heart. Bond kills Grant by shooting him with Grant’s concealed weapon. At the end of the novel, Bond finds Rosa Klebb in a hotel disguised as an old woman waiting for Grant. She tries to kill him with poisoned knitting needles. Bond’s friend, Rene Mathis, comes in with some men to take Klebb away but not before she kicks Bond with her poison tipped shoe and Bond falls to the floor and presumably dies.
22. Does Ian Fleming have a cameo in this film?
Ans: Publicity photos exist of Ian Fleming visiting the outdoor film set of From Russia with Love wearing a white sweater and dark pants, posed sitting on a English shooting stick (a walking stick with a small, fold – out leather seat at the top) on the train tracks in front of the engine of the Orient Express. In the scene where the train passes by one of Kerim Bey’s sons, who was waiting there as part of Bey’s original escape plan, there is a man seen in the field beside the tracks, wearing a white top and dark pants, standing in an odd, bent-legged posture, suggesting that he’s sitting or leaning on something. It is believed that the man is Ian Fleming with his shooting stick.
23. Why is the actor playing Blofeld credited with a question mark in the end titles?
Ans: Blofeld is played onscreen in From Russia with Love by Anthony Dawson. However, his voice was dubbed by actor Eric Pohlmann. The actor(s) playing Blofeld were credited with a question mark in order to add a sense of mystery to the character.
24. What’s the point in stealing the Lektor? Won’t the Soviets just change their codes when they realise it’s gone?
Ans: Yes, but it will cause the great confusion and disruption to do so. It also means that Western intelligence agencies will have the opportunity to go back through all past communications that they have intercepted but were unable to decode and to glean a treasure trove of information from them, such as the identities of Soviet agents operating in the West.
25. How many James Bond movies did Sean Connery make?
Ans: Including From Russia with Love, Connery made seven movies in which he played James Bond: Dr. No (1962), From Russia with Love (1963), Gold finger (1964), Thunderball (1965), You Only Live Twice (1967), Diamonds Are Forever (1971), and Never Say Never Again (1983).
Long Type Question & Answers
1. Discuss the summary of the story.
Ans: From Russia With Love by Ian Fleming is a novel centered around the infamous British M15 spy, James Bond. In this instalment of the Bond saga, Bond is targeted for elimination by the Russian intelligence agencies. To lure Bond to his death, the Russians have enlisted the help of a beautiful woman to seduce the famous spy. As Bond falls in love with this gorgeous woman, he allows his defences to slip, making himself vulnerable to the Russian plot. From Russia With Love is more romantic than the previous Bond novels giving the reader unique insight into this much loved character.
Grant, a killer for the secret killing machine of the MGB, is lounging by the pool when he gets word that he is needed in Moscow. Grant rushes to Moscow at the same time the leaders of the various Russian intelligence agencies are meeting with the leader of SMERSH. They must choose an intelligence agency of an enemy country to attack. They debate several and finally decide on England. Within the English Secret Service is an agent named Bond who has interfered with several Russian projects in the past and is popular with his fellow spies. They decide if Bond were killed and his reputation ruined, it would offer a deep blow to his agency. A death warrant is issued and a plan is designed. The Russians use a beautiful woman to lure Bond out of London. The lure works and Bond rushes to Istanbul in order to help this woman defect. The woman, Tatiana Romanova, has declared that she wants to defect to England because she is in love with Bond, a man she knows only by reputation. In exchange for Bond coming personally to help her, Tatiana has agreed to hand over a coding machine that the British would really like to have.
In Istanbul, Bond meets Darko Kerim, the leader of the British substation in Istanbul. Bond likes this man on sight. The two men spend a great deal of time together over the next few days because Kerim believes Bond should not sit in one place and wait for Tatiana to approach him. During this time, Bond not only sees more of Istanbul than he ever wanted, but he becomes involved in a plot against Kerim by a local gang who work for the Russians. This plot has nearly killed Kerim once with a bomb and they attack Bond and Kerim a second time while they are visiting a gypsy friend of Kerim’s. Kerim decides he must take out their leader in order to stop these attacks. Bond goes with Kerim and watches as he executes this man in cold blood.
Tatiana approaches Bond that night. Tatiana is in Bond’s bed naked when he comes back to the hotel. Bond and Tatiana spend the night together after deciding how to proceed. Bond wants to get the machine and take Tatiana to Britain by plane, but Tatiana insists on the Orient Express. This choice makes Bond uneasy, but he likes Tatiana and decides to indulge her. Bond talks erim into taking the train as well. Kerim immediately recognizes the three Russians they saw in a meeting a few days before on the train and decides to get them off. Kerim bribes a few officials and has two of these men off the train, making Bond feel more relaxed about the situation. However, Kerim is still nervous and wants Bond to leave the train and fly to London. Bond refuses.
The next morning, Kerim is found murdered. Bond decides to stay on the train, however. A man boards the train and Bond thinks he is another MI5 agent. The man agrees to share the guard duties and stays with Bond and Tatiana in their stateroom. However, the man is Grant, the assassin and the next morning he allows his identity to be known. Bond is told that it is a plan to kill him and make it look as though he killed Tatian and then killed himself over a scandal in which Bond used Tatiana to get the code machine. Bond waits for the killer to make his move and then he attacks, getting the better of Grant and killing him instead. Bond then goes after Grant’s boss, Klebb, and manages to trap her. However, Klebb gets the better of Bond, poisoning him before anyone notices what has happened.
2. Discuss the themes of the novel.
Ans: The themes of the novel are:
(i) The Hot Threat of Cold War: From Russia with Love is a James Bond novel in which Bond himself does not even actually appear until nearly one-hundred pages. The first ten chapters provide extensive insight into the people and mechanism involved in the Soviet Union espionage system. This is a way of introducing the character of Red Grant who is the central figure in that Russian spy system’s assassination bureau, the infamous SMERSH. Essentially, the first third of this James Bond novel is really about Red Grant and significant danger he presents to the agents working to keep democracy safe from communist infiltration. Although the Cold War had been in full swing and the Red Menace had destroyed across American, even as late as the year of publication, 1957, the primary conceptualization of Russian operatives working in the service of communism was still primary limited to the communist party members said to be lurking around every street corner. From Russia with Love was an instrumental fictional tool changing this perspective. The hefty load of plot development given over to what Fleming claimed was a realistic portrait of the inner workings of the Russian spy system through the explosion of popularity of the novel after making Pres. Kennedy’s list of favorite books-may well have played a much bigger role in transforming the Soviet threat from the actor who lost his job for attending a few meetings to the sinister reality of spies whose job was never to be detected by the public.
(ii) Post – Colonial Regret: A very strong current of regret at England losing the colonial hold over the world over the course of the 20th century permeates the novel. Most of the characters deemed worthy of suspicion are foreigners and darkly complexioned ones at that. Red Grant is himself a figure who starts out as an untamed Irishman who flirts with the IRA and is so wild as to experience almost a werewolf-like transformation into a rabid killer when the moon is full. Naturally, the only possible force strong enough to civilize such a creature s service in the British Army. Perhaps the most astonishing demonstration of the theme of just how much the world lost as well as England when they were forced to give up their colonies arrive in the recollections of Karim Bey. The Turkish head of operations for England’s spy agency shares a lovely little anecdote with Bond about keep a naked woman he kidnapped chained until her, naturally, fell in love with him.
(iii) Betrayal and Defection: The final chapter in Red Grant’s story begins with his defection to the Soviet Union following his being civilized by the British. Soviet agent Tatiana Romanova is used as a honeytrap pawn in a much larger conspiracy to kill James Bond and create an international scandal which is contingent upon her faking her own decision to detect from the Russians, unaware that her own death has already been written into the narrative. The fact that two major characters are working within the dirty little corner of espionage dealing with betrayal of one’s country by defection is not incidental. Fleming composed From Russia with Love amidst a flurry of high profile and potentially devastating real life defections on both sides of the Iron Curtain.