Class 12 History Chapter 11 Mughal Emperor and History

Class 12 History Chapter 11 Mughal Emperor and History The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year History Chapter 11 Mughal Emperor and History Question Answer.

Class 12 History Chapter 11 Mughal Emperor and History

Join Telegram channel

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 History Chapter 11 Mughal Emperor and History Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Essay type Question and Answers

Question 1. Discuss about King akbar’s religion. 

Ans. Akbar succeeded in religious aspects as a successful ruler in other aspects. Akbar has been established as one of the best kings in the minds of the Indian people because of liberal religious principles. 

Akbar was well aware that it was very necessary to unite every community in the country through a liberal religious policy to make the Muslim regime permanent in a country like India. So from the very early days of the regime Akbar tried to keep national policy above religious boundaries. Akbar had decorated a house of worship to discuss aspects of all religions and always interacted with various religious scholars. 

Akbar tried to find out the basic theories of religion in various ways. This causes the tobacco of Akbar to change. According to his religion a universal feeling arises in everyone’s mind by crossing certain boundaries. Such non-communal attitude of Akbar has led to the ulema in particular becoming opposed to Akbar. The ulema did not choose to dominate religion at all. Therefore, to bring religion into your own hands 

So Akbar prepares a document with the help of Sheikh Mubarak. According to this document, in 1571, Akbar declared himself to be the head of all matters related to religion and his decision on religion would be finalised. 

As a clever politician Akbar had well realised that everything must be avoided religious oppression if a vast country like India consisting of different mixed religious people is to be ruled. So akbar’s regime appointed people from both Hindus and Muslims in different directions of governance with no discrimination. He appointed Lord and Mansingh to high positions in the army by maintaining their rank. Similarly Birbal and Todoram also got prestigious positions in the Court of Akbar.  

He himself accepted a Hindu girl as his wife. It also paid jizya tax (per capita tax) imposed on Hindus and tax levied on pilgrims. 

Akbar took several measures to improve the education of Hindus. It may be recalled that Akbar did not interfere with Hinduism but never hesitated to remove the evil practices prevalent in Hindu society. It was during Akbar’s reign that he first took measures to stop the practice of satidaha. It was certainly not effective but its impact was very far reaching. Hindu widow marriage was first prevented by the practice of marriage and child marriage.

Question 2. Akbar’s day – write about Ilahi briefly. 

Ans. During Akbar, there was a lot of opposition among different religious people over religion. Akbar felt that the contradiction sat between different religions destroyed political unity. Therefore, in order to create a universal feeling in everyone’s mind through a particular religion, Akbar came up with a new religion called Din – E-Ilahi in 1582. It was established on the foundation of Ekeshwarbad of Vaishnavism. Many called it a combination of Ekeshwarbad Parsi and Hinduism. Efforts were made to coordinate the basic theories of all religions through this religion. Through this religion, the main goal of din – e-ilahi was to remove the various barriers on the religious side of that time. 

Criticism of Ilahi on the day:- Day full of deep philosophical theories – e-Ilahi religion could not influence the people. Akbar’s policy on religion was also very liberal. So no one was forced to adopt a new religion by using force. Only nineteen highly thoughtful people influenced by sufi doctrine adopted this religion. It may be recalled that among them Birbal was only a Hindu. 

Akbar’s sharp critic, Kheruni, has strongly criticized Akbar’s new religion. According to Dr° Smith, din – e- Ilahi akbar’s pillar of ignorance is not of knowledge. The whole plan was a terrible consequence of comedy and a suppressed dictatorship.

However, it cannot be said that all the criticism singed on akbar’s day – e-ilahi religion was correct. Because Badheuni was a violent man. He could not easily take the betterment of wise colleagues like Abul Fazal and Birbal in the Rajya Sabha of Akbar. Even like Birbal there are many instances of him abusing him in obscene language. Yet the philosophy of the day – e-Ilahi religion was very high and the common man could not understand so this religion disappeared with the death of Akbar.

Question 25. What were the main features of the mansari system established by Akbar? 

Ans. Akbar had no permanent army. The Jagirs had to supply troops to the emperor because of the practice of Jagi at that time. Such practices made the Jaagistronger. Even the Jagirdars did not hesitate to fight against the weak emperor.

So Akbar had prepared a new scheme to reform the military. This new system was known as mansabdari system. The main features of this psychological system are— 

(a) Mansabdars were divided into three parts. The highest level mansabdar had to prepare a total of ten soldiers while the highest level mansabdar had to prepare a total of ten Jahar soldiers. 

(b) The work and responsibility of the mansavadars was kept by the Emperor himself. The emperor entrusted the responsibility to the mansabdars at the foundation of the suitable one. 

(c) Signs were given on the horses of war. 

(d) In the case of the death of a mansabdar, all the powers under that manasbadar were under the control of the emperor. 

(e) The cavalry were generally the people of Pathan, Turkey, Mughal and Rajput Fayed. It was the people of Fayed who managed the horse. 

(c) The mansabdars were appointed, promoted by the emperor. 

(c) There were two other designations namely Caste and Sawar. There was a provision to give monthly damanto castes.

(h) Regular salaries were paid to the mansabdars besides castes and sarwas. Of these castes were the highest paid people. 

Question 4. Write briefly about ‘Tujuk – E- Jahangiri’. 

Ans. Emperor Jahangir’s autobiography was called Tujuk – E- Jahangiri. Jahangir’s life is a brilliant look at Mughal-era literature. 

Jahangir himself was a renowned historian. His autobiography was familiar to him. Because through this book many content of history of that time is available.

Through this book he mainly narrated the stories of war and passion. Jahangir, for example, discusses in detail the reasons for the defeat of his previous rulers in the South, the executive details of the royal servants, the duties of the employees, their punishment or transfer. Jahangir, on the other hand, is inspired by the performance and performance of his ancestors and tries to give a consistent description of their works. Apart from this, the laws of the country are also very carefully described in this book about family aspects like relationships with their families. 

He describes this autobiography as having been very beautiful for the first fifteen years of his reign. However, he also clearly mentions in this book that there are many obstacles to his life later. 

Question 5. What was the provincial regime of the Mughal era? Or, what were the main features of the mughal provincial rule? 

Ans: Uttar Pradesh Or The Governance Of The Subas Was Like The Central System Of Governance. There were some ministers and officials like the Centre in the provinces as well. The chief officer was known as Subedar. He was nominated by the emperor. Subedar should have communicated everything in the province to the emperor. 

The provinces were again divided into governments or districts for the benefit of governance. There was a mouzadar on every government. His main aim was to maintain law and order besides other things. He was given military power. 

Governments were again divided into some parganas or palaces. It was entrusted with the reins of three responsible officers. They are Kanango, Kazi and Chaudhary. 

Administrative practically again some helpful issues were appointed. They are- clerks, goanics, auditors, messengers and other employees. They prepared written orders and information as per rules. Persian was used as the official language. Local language was also used in the case of villages. 

Question 6. Discuss the Mughal door. Or, write a note about the big army.

Ans. The emperor was the focal point in the Mughal darbar or the court. That is, the throne was the main feature of the darbar. 

High ranking and nobles got seats with the emperor in darbar. The officers got seats as per rank and status. Once he took the seat he could not give up or get up. The rules and regulations of the court were very strict. Many addresses, etiquettes etc. should have been strictly obeyed. The emperor was to be greeted through very rules. The head bow and howl saheb should have been addressed. Those violating the rules were immediately punished. 

Some policies were also laid down for ambassadors in mughal darbar. The emperor hoped to be honoured by a ambassador when he appeared before the emperor. This salute was to be conveyed very sincerely by the Ambassador. Thomas, the representative of King James I of England, greeted and bent in front of Emperor Jahangir in European rituals and surprised everyone by looking for a seat to sit in the door. The emperor started daily activities every morning with devotional songs or prayers. He then stayed in a small room. There he met the people. Many people were waiting to meet him. Among them were various government officials. 

Question 7. Who was Akbar? Write about any of his three functions. 

Ans. Mahamati Akbar is said to be the best king of the Mughal era. He was able to establish a huge empire in India through his vast heart and secular policies. Akbar’s three main functions are— 

(a) Julh- e-Kul Niti:- Hindus, Jains, Zosterians, Muslims etc. lived in the Mughal Empire. So Akbar announced the principle of jooh – e- kul or full peace – to keep the empire peaceful. To be brief, tolerance for all religions and communities – the principle or doctrine based on this ideal was July-Ikul.

(b) Jijiya Kav Aadhar:- Akbar withdrew the jizya tax imposed on Hindu pilgrims in 1563 AD. He also donated for the reconstruction of monasteries and temples of all religions. 

(c) Construction of Fatehpur Sikri:- A new capital was established by Akbar in a place called Fatehpur Sikri some west of Agra in 1570 A.D. It took eight years to build this wide new capital. Here he built many buildings, mosques, monuments etc. Buland Darwaza is a huge entry way to the right of Fatehpur Sikri. 

Question 8. Why is Law – E- Akbari considered to be a very important history? Mention two of its admonitions.

Ans. The law written by Abdul Fazal at the behest of Emperor Akbar – e-Akbari became a historical document of the Mughal era. The book elaborated on the principles of door and administration, soldiers and resources, social, economic, cultural and religious customs. It also covers wide and controversial issues about all departments and provinces of Akbar’s administration.

This book gives information about the various customs, practices and practices prevalent in the vast empire of size. The book Ain – E-Akbari paints a true image of the Mughal Empire of Akbar’s time. Therefore, this book can also be called a very important historical document of the Mughal era. 

Of course, the book Ain – E-Akbari was not above criticism. Some of these are seen. E.g.– 

(a) Some of the information mentioned here was noticed. For example, 

(b) Detailed information about the caste of the Valeman Province zamindars was included. On the contrary such information about landlords from Bengal and Orissa is not available. 

Question 9. Who is the writer of Badsah Naama? Writing about the content of the book.

Ans. Abdul Hamid Lahiri, a beloved disciple of Abul Fazal, is known to be the author of Badsah Naama. Akbar appointed him to make history of his reign. The badshah name recorded in three chapters contained official history, each of which records the history of the ten lunar years. Lahiri has included the first two decades of Akbar’s reign in the first two volumes. Later It was connected by Chahjahan’s Wajir Chadullah Khan. Lahiri will write the third chapter due to old age Historian Warid finished its work in Newara. Thus the work of making history started in the Mughal era. 

Question 10. Who started ‘Jharoka Darshan’? How was it observed? 

Ans. Mughal Emperor Akbar started visiting Jharoka. The Mughal emperors started their daily work with devotion – songs and prayers. He then reached a small balcony in the east. It was called Jharokha. Many people were waiting to see the emperor under the balcony. Among these people were the poor people of soldiers, businessmen, artisans, farmers and sick children. The emperor interviewed the visitors from this balcony or jharokha so this arrangement was called Jharokha Darshan.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top