Class 12 History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles Question Answer.
Class 12 History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles
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Kings And Chronicles
Chapter – 10
PART – II
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Babar’s memories were written in which language?
Ans : Babar’s memories Tuzuk-i-Baburi were originally written in Turkish. They were translated in Persian as Babar Nama.
Q.2. How did Mughal paintings/ painters try to transmit the idea of divine light?
Ans : Paintings that accompanied the narrative of the chronicles from 17th century onwards transmitted the ideas of divine light by Portraying emperors wearing the halo, which they saw on European paintings of Christ an the Virgin Mary to Symbolise the light of God.
Q.3. Give the names of the two artists who accompanied Humayun from Iran?
Ans : Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad.
Q.4. Which cities formed capitals of Mughal rule at different times?
Ans : Delhi, Agra or Lahore formed capital cities of Mughal rulers at different times.
Q.5. By whom, when and why was the Asiatic Society of Bengal founded?
Ans : The Asiatic Society of Bengal was founded by Sir William Jones in 1784. The Society undertook the editing, printing and translation of many Indian manuscripts to enable British administrators study Indian history, gain archival knowledge about the sub-continent, to help better understand the people and culture of the empire they sought to rule.
Q.6. Who was the author of ‘Humayun Nama’ and ‘Badshah Nama’?
Ans : a) Humayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum wrote the ‘Humayun Nama.
b) The famous historian Abdul Hamid Lahori wrote the ‘Badshah Nama.
Q.7. What is the significance of Akbar’s Mansabdari system?
Ans : The Mansabdari system was in imperial service based on merit and graded according to military rank.
The lowest rank was 10 and the highest rank was 500. The Mansabdars acted both as military commanders and civil administrators.
Q.8. Who was Humayun? How was he forced to run away from India?
Ans : Humayun was son and successor of Babur. He expanded the frontiers of his empire. But he was defeated by Afghan leader Sher Shah Suri and he was forced to run away from India.
Q.9. Why did the Mughals call themselves as Timurids?
Ans : The Mughals were related to Mongols from the maternal side. But they did not like Mongols whom they considered as barbaric hordes. On the other hand, they were related to Turkish ruler Timur from the paternal side. So they called themselves as Timurids. Babur himself spoke Turkish.
Q.10. What is meant by Chahar Taslim?
Ans : Chahar Taslim is a mode of salutation which begins with placing the back of the right hand on the ground, and raising it gently till he person stands erect, when he puts the palm of his hand upon the crown of his head. It is done four (chahar) times. Taslim literally means submission.
B. Textual Questions & Answers:
Q.1. Describe the process of manuscript production in the Mughal Court.
Ans: All the Mughal books were manuscripts. In other words, they were hand-written. The centre where the work of manuscript production was taken was known as the imperial Kitalkhana. This Kitabkhana was like library. It was a scriptorium. In other words, it was a place where the emperor kept his collection of manuscripts and produced new manuscripts. A large number of people were involved in the creation of manuscript. They included the following.
Paper makers who prepared the folios of the manuscript. Sacrifice or calligraphers who copied the texts. Guilders who illuminated the pages of the manuscript. Painters who illustrated scenes from the text. Book binders who gathered the individual folios and set them within ornamental covers. In the end, all these manuscripts were considered very precious and invaluable. They were a work of beauty and intellectual wealth.
Q.2. In what ways would the daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal court have conveyed a sense of the of the emperor?
Ans: The emperor’s day began to the crack of dawn when he said his prayers. Next he appeared on a small balcony called the Jharoka. Here a large crowd awaited his darshan. The Jharokha darshan introduced by Akbar sought to broaden acceptance of imperial authority as part of popular faith. After spending an hour at the Jharokha, the emperor went to the Diwan-i-am to conduct the primary business of his government. Reports were presented by the state officials and key decisions taken. After spending two hours at the Diwani-i-am, the king went to the Diwan- i-Khas to hold private audiences and discuss confidential matters. Here tax officials presented their accounts and high ranking and ministers presented their petitions before him.
The emperor sometimes also viewed the building plans of architects and works of highly reputed artists. The position of the emperor was supreme and once he sat on the throne, no one was permitted to move or leave without his permission. The full forms of addresses, courtesies and speech were set down and the slightest infringement of etiquette was punished on the spot. The highest form of submission was sijda or complete prostration. Under Shahjahan these rituals were replaced with chahar, taslim and Zamindos (kissing the ground). The protocols governing diplomatic envoys at the Mughal court were equally explicit. Ambassadors were expected to either how deeply, kiss the ground or follow the Persian custom of clasping one hands in front of the chest. All these rituals enhanced the kings position.
On special occasions such as Id, Shab-i-barat and Holi, the court was full of life. Their magnificence had a tremendous impression on visitors. Three major festivals were the solar and lunar birthdays of the Monarch and Nauroz. On his birthdays, the Monarch was weighted against various commodities which were then distributed in charity.
Q.3. Assess the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire.
Ans: The role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire : In the Mughal house-hold a distinction way maintained between wives who came from royal families (begans), and other wives (aghas) who were not of noble birth. The begams, married after receiving huge amounts of cash and valuable as dower (mohr), naturally received a higher status and greater attention from their husbands than did aghas. The concubines (aghacha or the lesser agha) occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty. They all received monthly allowances in cash, supplemented with gifts according to their status. The lineage based family structure was not entirely static.
The agha and the aghacha could rise to the position of a begam depending on the husband’s will, and provided that he did not already have four wives. Love and motherhood played important roles in elevating such women to the status of legally wedded wives. Apart from wives, numerous male and female slaves populated the Mughal household. The tasks they performed varied from the most mundane to those requiring skill, tact and intelligence. Slave eunuchs (Khwajasara) moved between the external and internal life of the household as guards, servants, and also as agents for women dabbling in commerce.
After Nur Jahan, Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources. Shah Jahan’s daughters Jahanara and Roshanara enjoyed an annual income often equal to that of high imperial mansabdars. Jahanara, in addition, received revenues from the port city of Surat, which was a lucrative centre of overseas trade.
Control over resources enabled important women of the Mughal household to commission buildings and gardens. Jahanara participated in many architectural projects of Shah Jahan’s new capital, Shahjahanabad (Delhi). Among this was an imposing double-storeyed caravanserai with a courtyard and garden. The bazaar of Chandni Chowk, the throbbing centre of Shahjahanabad, was designed by Jahanara. An interesting book giving us a glimpse into the domestic world of the Mughals is the Humayun Nama written by Gulbadan Begum. Gulbadan was the daughter of Babur, Humayun’s sister and Akbar’s aunt.
Gulbadan could write fluently in Turkish and Persian. When Akbar commissioned Abu’s Fazl to write a history of his region. He requested his aunt to record her memories of earlier times under Babur and Humayun, for Abu’l Fazl to draw upon. What Gulbadan wrote was no enology of the Mughal emperors. Rather she described in great detail the conflicts and tensions among the princes and kings and the important mediating role elderly women of the family played in resolving some of these conflicts.
Q.4. What were the concerns that shaped Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the subcontinent?
Ans: The basic concerns that shaped Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the sub-continent continue to be constant in many respects-strategic geopolitics, economic and trade, cultural affiliations and protection of state interests beyond its frontiers. These very concerns drove Mughal policies with regards the Safavids and the ottomans. The period covering 16th and 17th centuries saw the rise of powerful states- the Use Legs in central Asia, the Ottoman state in Turkey, the Safavids state in Iran and finally the Mughal state in India.
Mughal relations with the Safavids. Iran and Turan were defined by control of the frontier defined by the Hindukush mountains that separated Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia. Kandahar and Kabul acted as two gateways into the sub-continent. The security of the Mughal state could be held at ransom if Persia (safavids) or the Uzbeg state controlled these cities. Therefore a constant Mughal policy was to control Kabul and Kandahar. Another important feature of the Mughal policy was its belief in balance of power.
Mughals believed and rightly that the fall of Persia or Uzbeg state would strengthen the other and consequently threaten the Mughal state. However Qandahar was a bone of contention between Safavids and Mughals. The fortress town had initially been in possession of Humayun. Upon Humayun’s death Qandahar easily passed into Safavid hands. It was reconquered in 1595 by Akbar. Though Jahangir was
conscious of Shah Abbas’s aggressive policies and that he had not abandoned the Safavid claim on Qandahar- diplomatic relations were retained.
In 1613 Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas to plead the Mughal case for retaining Qandahar but the mission failed. End of 1622 as Persian attack and conquest of Qandahar. The relationship between the Mughals and Ottomans was marked by concern to ensure free movement of merchants and pilgrims. Important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located in territories under ottoman control. The Mughal emperors usually exported valuable merchandise to Aden and Mokha (Red Sea Ports) and distributed the proceeds of the sales in charity to keepers of shrines and religious men there. On finding about misappropriation of funds Aurangzab discontinued this practice.
Q.5. Discuss the major features of Mughal provincial administration. How did the centre control the provinces?
Ans: The Mughal state had provinces which were called the Subas. These Subas were looked after by Diwan, Bakhshi and Sadar. The head of the provincial government was the Governor (Subdar). He reported directly to the emperor. Each Suba was divided into various sarkars. Then there were districts which were looked after by faujdars. Then there was pargana, that is sub-district. It had three semi hereditary officers such as the qanungo (keeper of the revenue records), the Chaudhari (incharge of revenue collection) and the Qazi. Each department of administration had a large number of clerks, accountants, auditors and messengers. Besides there were technically qualified officers who functioned in accordance with fixed rules and procedures.
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